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Impressions in a horror movie depends on tone, texture and mood. Good horror always rely on color as the main engine of the mood of the picture, unlike other genres that rely on other elements (dialogue, story metamorphose, etc.). However, this does not mean at all horror films do not need in good dialogues and a screenplay- they fade into the background, giving way to the atmosphere and mood.

We do not even realize exactly how horror films excite our imagination work literally on a subconscious level. A huge, if not a key role in this process is played by the color: the general tone of the frame, the coloring of clothes, objects, and so on.


Monster in the shadow

Horror chooses black and white. If white color point to a conditionally safe zone, where nothing happens with the main characters (we hope so), then black is the opposite - it creates a heavy, oppressive atmosphere. Basically, horror stories happens at the night time, even if the action takes place at day time - then such place is very lightless and ominous. A human is afraid of what he cannot see - he is afraid of the dark. Filmmakers try to awake this natural human fear with the help of color. Black color is always hides something in itself, attracts to itself and at the same time makes you scared (fear of the unknown). A striking example of the successful use of black - “Alien” by Ridley Scott (1979). Completely all actions with the monster take place in the gloomy, cramped corridors of the spacecraft where the monster (also black) is almost impossible to see.

Red filters

Red color filters in horror movies can be very effective, because the red color makes the viewer nervous on a subconscious level. Operators often use red filters on luminaires that are responsible for drawing light.

As an example, consider the movie “Suspiriya” in 1977. The color here plays almost the main role. Red here is an indicator of evil, so all the scenes in the ballet school, where terrible murders and ominous events take place, are colored in red or pink.

In addition, red color is a hint that in this film will be a lot of blood. For example, many killer characters are specifically highlighted in red.

Contrast

The contrast of the two color palettes is a classic technique which is used in a cinema to separate two different states of a hero or the worlds in which they are located. It is the basis of the visual narration of the movie. This is especially noticeable in silent films, where the maximum attention is paid to the visual component. The tense scenes in the movie “The Witches” of 1922 were made in red, while calmer - in blue.

Association and alteration

In horror films, color has only two types of use: association and alteration. In the case of association, color is used to display any ideas. For example, we associate the clown Penny from the movie “It” with red, and if in one of the frames we see red, then we understand that there is a connection with the character.

. If the colors in the film are stable, then a sharp change of tone is already a transition. Alterations can be simple - like changing locations, or complex, like changing the character's mindset.

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The role of color in the movie is very important. With help of color, filmmaker increase the intensity of emotions, accent the importance of the episode, show the details, and create the necessary atmosphere.

“Like Wes Anderson,” “Retro Cinema,” “Blue and Yellow,” many viewers have already remembered these color schemes.

Michael Bay's favorite palette. 

Yellow and blue - perhaps the most common combination in modern cinema. No matter how much we are tired of the borderless “Transformers” and “Avengers”, the choice of such a palette is primarily due to the color contrast - this is a very successful pair. Almost in each episode, we can observe actors whose complexion is as close as possible to pastel, yellow and orange colors. Based on the color contrast the opposite pair is blue or light blue - so the background or environment is usually painted in these colors.

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Horror in cold tones.

Cold, too blue or green colors do not give rest to the creators of thrillers and horror films. In fact, these are standard colors for these movie genres. Such palette is close to our perception of color at night, in fact, the story of most of these movies happens at night. 

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Discoloured apocalypse.

Gray, blurred, discolored – description of the color palette of most apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic movies.

Even when the action take place in the desert, the sand around for some reason is not yellow (as, for example, in “Mad Max”), but certainly gray, as if only dust and cement are around. This color cliche is so deeply rooted that sometimes scenes with rich vegetation look almost like b/w.

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Interesting video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=91&v=0ZZgiSUyPDY

As we can see, the color palette in the movie work for different aims. However, in most cases, the choice of palette depends entirely on the vision of the film director, colorists and editors.

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The history of vogue colors cross with political events in the world. For centuries, clothing has been a mirror of social mood, a tool for private protest and symbol of status.

Today, politics come in to the life of everyone, regardless of the neutrality of views. Designers bring protest to the podium, and politicians use clothes to convey their ideas, often passing them through color. In recent years, modest black loose popularity giving way to the bright shades with a symbolic meaning.

White. White color associated with ancient Greek democracy. In France, at court, white became the symbol of the absolutist monarchy. Pure color was primary for the Bourbon dynasty, which ruled France for almost four centuries. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this color became as major for the White Guard - the anti-communist movement against the Bolsheviks in the civil revolution of 1917-1922.

Black. Along with red, black color became one of the symbols of the National Socialist government in Germany from 1933 to 1945. By the way, the designer and manufacturer of the German uniform in those years was Hugo Boss.

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Purple. The color of the movement for the women's rights. Firstly it became a symbol of the suffragettes, and then - of the modern feminists. Also it is the favorite color of Hillary Clinton - the first woman in America who come very close to the presidency. This color of dignity and dedication to ideas, Hillary used during her presidential campaign and purple pantsuit from Ralph Lauren become a part of her image.

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Pink. Before now politicians avoided pink. Women rate it too infantile and frivolous, and men rate it simply girly. Today, pink become the main shade of the political party of the Feminist Initiative in Sweden, and since 2018 it symbolizes the empowerment of women.

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Blue. Louis XIV, the main fashion mover in France of the XVII century, made blue a royal color. At the royal court act special fashion code, mere mortals was forbided to wear some things. For example, only the king and his confidants could wear blue trim on their clothing.

Green. In the political wardrobe, green was considered as neutral, but in the last decade this color has become a symbol of ecological movements, such as Greenpeace, as well as the main color of it activists' clothing.

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Yellow. Yellow especially loved by Queen Elizabeth II of England, along with pastel and rainbow shades. A bright coat, sheath dress and matching hat - a classic image of the queen. In politics, yellow symbolizes liberalism and, more recently, the movement of "yellow vests" in France.

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Red. Red is the symbol of the communist. Red color in the interpretation of the Bolsheviks - the color of blood shed by working people in the fight against the exploiters. In an earlier and narrow interpretation, red is the color of the revolutionary struggle, the labor movement, symbol of the spilled blood in the struggle for freedom.

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International Klein Blue is a special shade of blue. It formula registered in 1960 by the French abstractionist Yves Klein.

For Klein, blue color had a special meaning. Klein believed that all other colors cause persistent associations in people, unlike blue, which reminds only of the most abstract things in the world - the sky and the sea.

Klein tried to keep a rich shade of velvet ultramarine, but color disappeared in contact with the fixative. 

Paris-based paint dealer Edouard Adam helped Klein to achieve the desired effect. He advised to use Rhodopas M60A synthetic resin, developed by the pharmaceutical company Rhône-Poulenc.

International Klein Blue color was not patented - it was against to French law, so Klein registered the technology itself.

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Klein's “blue period” began several years before the invention of International Klein Blue. So, in 1957, he opened an exhibition in Milan, on which he present 11 absolutely identical blue canvases measuring 78 by 56 cm.

Klein created 194 blue canvases during short career (the artist died at the age of 34 from a heart attack)

The most famous blue works were “anthropometry” (human body science), creation of which was turned into a real performance. Klein poured paint on completely naked girls-models, and then asked them to leave prints on canvas. During such events, guests drank blue cocktails, under the “Monotonous Symphony” - the author's monotonous composition consisted of only one accord.

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The actual recording of one of these performances: Yves Klein - Blue Women Art - 1962

After receiving a patent in the summer of 1960, Klein began to create sculptures in blue.

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Unfortunately, Yves Klein died in 1962, just two years after the creation of a unique paint...

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Pink for girls, blue for boys: we heard this phrase many times from parents or school teachers. But, in fact, this is nothing more than a gender myth, a common misconception that many of us still willingly believe. There is no strict gradation between the purely “male” and “female” colors, since each color has many shades, but women and men still have different preferences. It should be noted that the cultural evolution and social standards have a great influence on the preferences of men and women. It is generally accepted that pink is an exclusively feminine color, blue is a male color, but in reality we see almost equal preferences for “basic” gender colors.

The most active color, blue is research, it isalmost equally fond of both sexes. This is why this color is so often used in web design.

One of the most interesting color psychology studies is Joe Hallock's «Colour Assignment». These data may indicate that people clearly have preferences for colors regardless of gender. During the study, men and women of different ages were asked to choose the most preferred color from 8 available. This color was blue. It is almost equally preferred by both gender, so this color is so often used in web design.

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Favorite colors for men and women

Studies by the British psychologist Hans Jürgen Eysenck in the early 1940s, are confirmed by Joe Hallock's data - men prefer blue and light blue more often than women do.

The most significant gender difference color is green. It mostly loved by men`s, while women`s give preference to the violet. The two pie charts below represent the favorite colors of each gender.

 Least favorite colors

Yellow, orange and brown - men and women almost equally cannot stand these colors. The degree of dislike can significantly depending on the person's age.

In the matter of color shades, men most often prefer bright, catchy tones, while women choose softer, pastel shades.

Such studies can be used for better understanding potential customers, for the design tuning of web projects and products.

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Effect Restorff or "isolation effect" – psychological principle, the essence of which is that the marked object, such as a red cover book on a shelf with green ones, is more likely to be remembered by others. This feature of human memory is often used by creators of computer games, marketers and designers, artists, photographers and film directors. The main markers are the size, shape and of course colour. So the students took to the habit of marking important lines in textbooks with a marker, because the information that stands out from the rest of the homogeneous text is memorized much better. This effect can seriously affect conversion.

The effect is named in honor of Hedwig Restorff German psychiatrist, who experimentally discovered it in 1933. The participants presented a list of words in which one was different a different color. As a result, the selected word remembered most.


Video with more detailed analysis of this effect: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z0EIUtFrtp4

Contrast vs similar colors

Thus, the study “Aesthetic response to color combinations: preference, harmony, and similarity” showed that although the overwhelming majority of consumers prefer similar shades, but them express much sympathy for contrasting palettes with bright color accents.

Another proof of the effective application of the insulation effect are the tests with color-changing buttons. They showed that after changing the button color from green to red, the conversion increased by 21%. Obviously, most of the page is focused on the green palette. This means that the green call to action just merges with the background. Red is a complementary color to green and it provides a sharp visual contrast.

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How to use isolation effect in marketing?

● Create useful, meaningful contrast between the promoted product and the cheaper(less quality) counterparts. Surely you have noticed this technique in advertising, when the bright packaging of the same product compare with faded, discolored, “not named” packaging of another product;

● Bright packaging of a fancy shape - something that will highlight your product on the shelf with the same type of competitors. The more nonstandard the product packaging design is, the more likely customers are to pay attention to it.

The effect of isolation in the design

● In the process of developing a site design, highlight the brightly useful buttons that should immediately be noticeable to the visitor, such as “subscribe”, “enter” or “register”

● Change the type of visual effects. For example, if most of the images - the pictures, the contrast is to add a few illustrations, videos, etc.;

● Vary the background color. This is a simple way to emphasize your main ideas;

Don't know what color to choose? Choose a color that will be in harmony with the site! This will help you apps like Color Assist, Live Palettes.

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What helps us to perceive a character as good or evil even before he speaks or shows his nature? Most likely the design and the color as well.

Think about it, because multipliers (as well as designers and marketers) often use color to denote a character. If he is bad, he will wear a black hat, if he is good, he will wear a white coat, etc. This technique is built on the psychology of color, because our perception largely depends on the cultural environment, which imposes a stereotype on us. In the end, when you draw an image of a villain in your head, he is not wearing a pink tights.

A study was conducted that established the connection between the prevailing color in character design and how “good” or “evil” they are. After analyzing more than forty Disney characters, it turned out that the design of the villains is dominated by dark colors: black and purple, and the characters are dominated by bright, rich yellow and orange.

Purple. One of the most villainous colors. Associated with power, nobility, luxury and ambition. Characters striving for power in one form or another: Maleficent from Sleeping Beauty, Dr. Fasillier from Princess and Frog, Evil Queen from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Interestingly, this color is also present in the design of some hero characters, like Aladdin, which clearly indicates his ambitions.

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White. Despite the fact that most of us unwittingly associate white with something kindly light, in Disney cartoons it is found in very different characters. Take, for example, Miss Barashkis from Zeropolis: because of the white color, she is initially perceived as a positive character, but in fact she is a wolf in sheep's clothing. Or, for example, Auto from WALL-E: in the cartoon he is shown as a villain, but in fact he has no moral at all.

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Black. It so happened that this is the color of the villains. But if Scar and Ursula is a 100% concentrated evil, then Yokai from the City of Legends is a much more complex character who can still atone for sins - it is actually displayed with white mask on the background of a completely black suit.

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Red. This color is equally found in both villains and heroes; heroes cannot live without a scarlet cloak.

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Blue. In most cases, blue is the color of goodies. But, it is found in the design of some evil (Elsa from the Cold Heart) or characters like Stitch, who are on the verge between good and evil.

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Yellow. The color of good and positive: Pocahontas and Winnie the Pooh. Try to remember at least one evil character painted in this color? The only exception is Pinocchio, who has a habit of lying.

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Orange. Bright, rich orange is one of the most popular colors in Disney cartoons. Mostly predominantly in positive characters, with the exception of Sher Khan. But, in this case, it is impossible to ascribe any meaning of the color because what to take from it if he's a tiger!

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Green. Green is the color of heroes who struggle with circumstances or with themselves. As an example, Mulan, who grew out of a princess into a fearless warrior, or Ariel, a young mermaid, who left the ocean for the life she had long dreamed of.

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Each color has its own "energy", so the multipliers carefully select colors for their characters. They do everything to convey their character as best as possible. There are a lot of articles about color characters meaning, but it is necessary to admit that the one color can have several meanings. Sometimes completely opposite.

Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=916Kg0R9NPA

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People from time immemorial tried to designate themselves in any color. At first they put paint on the skin, and as soon as they learned how to sew clothes, they immediately began painting it.

Throughout history, the color palette of clothes become richer, and its use is wider. At a time when battles took place in close combat, no one tried to disguise, on the contrary, the bright color of clothing helped to distinguish one soldier from another, gave an information about position in the military hierarchy. The semantics of color changed depending on the epoch, political, ideological and religious which dominate in the society from time to time.

Brown is the privilege of the peasants and slaves. During antiquity and the Middle Ages, gray and brown were the privileges of peasants and slaves. For centuries, this color meant simplicity and modest. This color choice was explained very simply: brown is the color of unpainted wool or unbleached flax - the simplest and cheapest materials.

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White - intellectuals and aristocracy. White began to prevail in the clothes of aristocrats during the times of antiquity. Thus, the nobility emphasized their exclusivity against the background of dirty slaves. After all, if a person wears a white outfit - he is clearly not a fan of physical labor.

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Black, red, gold. The Cardinal, the second spiritual leader after the Pope in the Catholic Church, is constantly dressed in red. The red symbolizes the cardinal's readiness to protect the faith and the church with his own blood. It sounds nice, but in fact, Mozetta (this is the name of the cardinal's cape) is a kind of identity card, represents the hierarchical dignity of the person who carries it. The most popular color of both the Catholic and the Orthodox Church is black. Priests wear black clothing both during worship and in everyday life. The nobles also often dressed in this color, thereby demonstrating reliability. And in the days of the Spanish Inquisition, such a precaution was not superfluous. With the advent of the Baroque style, gold came into church fashion as a symbol of power.

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Yellow is the color of favoritesThroughout history, there were combinations of colors for the elected. One of these colors is considered to be the “surprise of the dauphin” (the color of children's surprise). This dirty yellow color was popular among Louis XIV epoch.

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Color symbolism is not always amenable to logical explanation. Often preference to a particular color is determined by convention, the roots of some of them have long been lost. Fortunately, today removed all the semantic restrictions, and the choice of colors of the clothes no longer matter.

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Pain is a signal to the body about failures and malfunctions. Yes, each person suffers pain in his own way: someone faints at the sight of dental instruments, and someone treats his teeth even without anesthesia. How to set the level of pain felt by a person? Doctors of various specialties asked this question more than once, because the quality of diagnosis is directly related to the quality of treatment.

When assessing pain, it is not enough to limit oneself to physiological indicators (wounds, bruises, burns) or the patient’s behavioral responses. Their main drawback is the inability to take into account the multidimensionality of pain. It is necessary to have information about its quality characteristics and how pain affects the main aspects of human activity. Therefore, physicians and psychologists develop visual color scales. Most methods for assessing pain are based on the interpretation of the statements of the patients themselves.

The most common are the so-called “visual analogue scales of pain” (“color scale”), suggesting the association of the severity of pain with color. The line can be both horizontal and vertical. The patient is asked to make a mark on this line, corresponding to the intensity of pain he is currently experiencing.

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Most modern techniques are based on the ranking of colors according to the degree of pleasantness. The subject is offered a scale of colors on which he chooses the most pleasant and / or the most unpleasant, depending on the level of pain.
For children to diagnose the level of pain, scales with images of various facial expressions are commonly used. The child chooses a person who, in his opinion, most closely matches the current level of pain.

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Such tools are designed to conduct rapid tests, therefore, are used during the initial assessment. This helps the doctor to obtain information about the characteristics and level of pain, how pain affects a person's daily life. Scale of pain from 1 to 10 level - an example of one of the most effective techniques allows you to accurately determine the level of pain according to the description that corresponds to specific levels and colors (each is divided into shades depending on frequency of pain).

There are tests, like "Multidimensional verbal-color pain test", which helps to define the nature of pain. Psychogenic (based on psychological reasons), somatogenic pain is caused by physical factors.

How do doctors interpret test results?

To interpret the results of such testing problematic, because each of the colors can be quite a lot of values. Therefore, for more accurate estimates immediately after conducting the test the test the patient is instructed to describe their own color associations with pain. Summarized the results show a fairly accurate picture. The only thing we know, red color is most intense pain that simply cannot be tolerated. Such techniques are the first step in the complex diagnosis, they affect the analgesia efficacy and adequacy of the selected treatment .

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From early childhood, you showed the world the child pointed to the object and its colour, but from about two years worth thinking about the directed learning of colors. At this time, children are most susceptible to new information, they want to learn something new, they are interested in everything that is happening around.

Do not forget that training at such an early age should take place in the form of a game. Only in this way it will be interesting for the child and he will be able to concentrate on what you are trying to convey to him. When teaching colors, it is important not to put pressure on the child. Excessive assertiveness can only scare away the lessons, because they should be held in the simplest, most relaxed form. You can start learning colors from an earlier age, the main thing is that the child is interested.


Simple tips:

  • Beginning to learn colors with your child, focus on 4 primary ones: red, blue, yellow, and green;
  • Do not initially mislead the child with diminutive forms. The sky is not “little blue”, but “blue”. Abandon them, let the child remember the correct name first;
  • It is not necessary to constantly ask the child to point to one or another color, let him better bring a toy (or any object) of a certain color;
  • Try to pronounce the names of the same color in a different context. For example: it is a blue cube, a blue cube, it is blue, etc.

Toys to help. Perhaps the most productive toys in terms of learning colors are puzzles and constructors (for example, LEGO DUPLO), but pyramids with colored rings have not lost their relevance too. If the child has already learned the basic colors, you can give preference to the complex developmental toys, those that will help you learn not only the color, but also the form, they will teach you to count.

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Non-formal learning. Learn colors in the process of everyday life. For example, on the way to kindergarten, offer your child to count the red cars, but before that you need to show how exactly the red color looks. Do not rush to correct, if child indicates a burgundy car, let him first learn the basic colors. You can always return to the study of shades later.

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Creativity. Creativity allows the child to gain a deeper knowledge of color. Draw together, constantly pronounce the name of each particular color. Coloring book halves can help a lot: on the pages a part of the image is already colored with the necessary colors, and the second child should paint on their own, by analogy. When the base colors are studied, you can proceed to the study of shades. This will help paints, clay and colored clay for sculpting: сolors are easy to mix, which means you can quickly get the desired shade.

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What if a child cannot learn colors? If a child persists in confusing colors, do not make premature conclusions regarding his mental abilities. Some children may have a banal delay in early development (this is normal), with time the child will catch up with their peers. Disruption of photosensitivity is another reason why children cannot distinguish colors. In this case, the perception of certain colors and shades is disturbed, but it is often simply impossible to diagnose such deviations, because the child can learn to distinguish colors by brightness and contrast.

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Color has a rather strong impact on us: some tones induce melancholy, while others, on the contrary, delight and inspiration, some colors irritate the nervous system, others - soothe. Max Luscher developed a technique in 1947, the essence of which is to create a specific set of colors: from the most annoying at the moment, to the most pleasant. Doctors use the Luscher test to determine the level of pain in patients; psychologists to find out what worries the patient, to determine the source of stress; sociologists - to conduct all kinds of research.

Before testing, a person is offered to abstract from all obsessive thoughts, sufferings, experiences and associations imposed from outside. Then just choose the color of the card, based on your own preferences at the current moment, according to the principle: like, like not as much as the previous one. As a result, a person unconsciously selects colors.

Test colors were chosen experimentally by Luscher from 4500 colors during five years of work in a psychiatric clinic. There are at least ten different Luscher tests, which differ in composition, size and shades of cards.

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The full Luscher test:

  • 7 color sets tables : grey, 8 color, 4 basic colors, blue, green, red, yellow
  • table of 7 forms corresponding to the colors (except black)
  • re-layout of the table 8 colors

The most widespread in the world received lightweight, 8 color test, which is folded twice. Every time you need to choose colors, as if for the first time. The first choice reflects the desired state, the second reflects the real one.

When analyzing test results, the choice and order of colors, the relative position of colors, and their combinations are taken into account. According to the results of testing, you can find out what a person really is, and not what he wants to be, to seem around. In essence, the Luscher test is an indicator of a person’s physical and psychological health.

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The rainbow is an impressive atmospheric phenomenon, the nature of which has interested mankind at all times. Thus, the Persian astronomer Qutb al-Din ash-Shirazi, who lived in 1236-1311, was the first to give a fairly accurate explanation of the appearance of the rainbow. The partial physical picture of the rainbow was first described in the book “De radiis visus et lucis in vitris perspectivis et iride” written by Marc Anthony de Dominis back in 1611. A full explanation of the phenomenon (relevant to this day) was given by Rene Descartes in 1637.

Physics of the rainbow. A white ray of light passing through a drop of water (rain or fog) refracts and breaks into its constituent parts: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, blue and violet - the colors of the rainbow. The effect is caused by the fact that the rays of the different colors are refracted different. Red color deviates the least, violet is more. The most obvious example is the experience of Newton with the use of a glass prism. He made an important conclusion from it: white light is composite, it is a mixture of all the colors of the rainbow(spectrum).

Why rainbow is not always visible? This phenomenon is possible only when the sun comes out from the opposite side of the thundercloud, where it had just rained. Sometimes you can see the double rainbow, the second a little higher on the first (primary), it is much dimmer and the colors in it are reversed. This happens in cases when the beam of light reflected from the inner surface of a drop of water not once but two (due to this, the colors are in reverse order). The third rainbow in natural conditions is extremely rare.

It is quite simple to recreate this phenomenon at home: put a glass of water on the window on the sunny side or just spray water against sunlight - and you will be able to see all colors of the spectrum.

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Chroma key is the technology simplified to combine multiple images in one frame. This technology used in television, film and video production. Chroma Key allows you to remove a green background and superimpose any image on its place.

The editor in the special application chooses the command “delete all green pixels”, and the system will automatically replace them with another image, most often with computer graphics. The background color can be any color, even red (the main idea - color should not coincide with the object in the frame), but video production usually used green.

Green background color is widespread not by accident. The fact is that the matrixes based on the Bayer filter, which are used in modern digital cameras, are more sensitive to green shades. So, the image in the green channel is cleaner, contains less noise - all this greatly simplifies its subsequent processing. And the blue color of the chromakey has receded into the background for a rather banal reason - because of the blue-eyed people and blue jeans that often flash on the screen.

By the way, there are films that are almost completely made using a green background. For example: “City of Sins”, “Avatar”, “Alice in Wonderland” or “Life of Pi”. In some cases, the substitution is quite obvious - they cannot shoot all these cosmic, unreal landscapes from nature! But sometimes we don't even notice this substitution...

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Surely each of you can remember the photos that are impressed by the color. Moreover, the presence of bright, catchy shades in such cases is not at all important. They stand out due to the particular combination of colors. To benefit from countless combinations of colors, you need at least a little understanding of color theory. Let's see how it helps to make your photos better.

The color wheel

About color wheel we had a separate article. He came to photography from painting, because in the begining of evolution photographers tried in every way to imitate the artists of that time. The purpose of the circle is to show how to combine the colors and how to achieve their interaction. With color wheel we can quickly and easily choose the most successful combinations of colors. For creating harmonious photos we will equip with two useful tools: Color wheel and its convenient variation for camera phone Live palette. Let us choose one of the most appropriate color schemes.

A monochrome scheme. This scheme uses shades of just one color, changing only the saturation or brightness. It is quite simple to apply this scheme in a photo, because the less color - the easier it is to combine them.

Contrast (or complementary scheme) . Used in photography most often. The essence of the contrast in the selection of directly opposite colors on the circle. Suitable in the case when you need to keep attention. In the Instagram ribbon, these photos literally jump on the viewer, forcing to open and examine the details more closely.

Triade. The scheme of the three, equidistant from each other colors. Provides high contrast while maintaining harmony. Such a composition looks quite lively even when using pale and unsaturated colors.

Color harmony in photography is extremely important. In fact, this is a selection of colors that blend perfectly together. The color helps to create the mood of a photo, to highlight a specific object against the gloomy background. Simple tools will help you to make a perfect, expressive photos that will attract attention again and again.

Take a note: An article about why people needs in harmony...

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Initially, Santa's costume was brown, blue, white, purple and even green, but not red. And there was no single, canonical image of this legendary character.

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The image of Santa Claus in a red suit first appeared on the back cover of National Geographic magazine in 1931, and it was Coca-Cola's New Year's advertising company. Due to this approach, the brand wanted to significantly increase the sales of soft drinks in the cold season, when Coca-Cola was not particularly relevant. As a result, the image of the Red Granfather very quickly spread throughout the world.

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The modern image of Santa Claus was designed by painer Haddon Sundblom. His images became the most successful among other painers works.

The suit of Santa in the interpretation of Sandblom was red with a white edge of fur. But, for the sake of truth, the priority in using such color combination in the clothes of a fairytale character does not belong to Coca-Cola at all. Much earlier Santa, dressed similarly, appeared on several covers of the comic magazine “Puck” (1986, 1902 and 1905) and on posters advertising drinks from White Rock Beverages (1915 and 1920-ies).

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The modern image of Santa Claus - part of the brand Coca-Cola. Despite this company is not the inventor of red santa, it made the greatest contribution to his canonization. And actually the red color of the clothes in this case does not bear absolutely no semantic implication.

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Modern food industry can make food with specific taste and color. But still, some products simply can not fail to impress.

The natural dye. Have you heard about purple carrot juice? And how often you see a purple carrots in the supermarket? Perhaps some of you didn’t even think about its existence...

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As part of such an unusual carrot there is an anthocyanin, the pigment that makes it purple. It should be noted that it is completely safe and is commonly used in the food industry of EU countries. This natural dye is used in the most unexpected products, for example, in berry yogurt, to simulate the color of currants or blueberries.

Gïk Blue - Spanish blue wine. This is another example of how marketers of the food industry use unusuall color for buyer attraction. It should be noted that color of this wonderful wine is neither magic nor chemical dyes. The blue color of the liquid gives the same anthocyanin, extracted from grape skin. The wine itself is a mixture of red and white grapes and, according to manufacturers, represents innovation and forward movement.

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Fake.

Wasabi - why some manufactures do fake? It turns out that for some manufacturers much easier and cheaper to mix the usual horseradish that is growing in the local latitude, with green dye, than to wait for supplies from exotic countries. Yes, it's listed on the package, but who reads that? Especially if sushi is served in the restaurant...

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Color in the food industry is extremely important. Suffice it to recall how much time is spent on food photography for advertising or store presentations. Think about how you choose the products: the color in this case is very important. A lot of studies show that the rich vibrant color is an indicator of the quality and excellent taste. The bright orange color of orange juice point to its high taste qualities. The bright red color of tomatoes is about their freshness. 

The exotic colors of the foods motivate us to buy them, just for the interest. Plus, the color makes the product recognizable.

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Usually we see accustomed to see doctors in white robe and already subconsciously associate the medical profession with this color. The white clothes of the medical workers explained with the practicality of this color. Any, even the slightest, stains are clearly visible on it, and it is possible to bleach a monochromatic white fabric with the help of usual chlorine. But why then modern surgeons do not wear white coats?

Surgeons wear blue or green robes for a reason. It's all about the device of human vision.

Green - the most restful color for our eyes. It helps to relax and focus on a specific action, while red is a clear irritant. And irritability is simply unacceptable during complex multi-hour operations. Yes, and the crystal white color can momentarily blind the doctor, who for a long time concentrated on dark colors. Therefore, this color is chosen primarily not because of the aesthetic quality, but because of practicality. This can significantly reduce the likelihood of errors during the operation.

We sometimes do not pay attention to some things but it can be a thoroughly thought out things.  And even such an insignificant detail as the color of a robe helps to save lives.

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A human perceives the world mainly visually, because color is an integral component of the characteristics of any object. Congenital sense of color harmony is not given to everyone, so specialized applications such as the Color Wheel and Live Palettes can help. But first of all, when choosing some color you need to ask yourself: what effect do I want to achieve?

Effects that can be achieved with a lot of color, for example, you can visually increase the volume of a room with white or achieve the opposite effect by using matte black. Some colors create a cozy atmosphere, others tune the working mode, that is, there are many options for applying color. How to use a color to create a certain effect in the interior?

Coolness. What color do you imagine when you think about coolness? Of course blue, because it is the color of freshness. It will help if the room is hot, especially if the windows look to the sunny side.

Warmth and comfort. This effect is created with the help of red and orange, because they are shades of warm colors. For a cold climate, brown will be perfect, the walls colored in this color will add some warmth and comfort.

Volume. Alas, we can not add square meters, but to make an apartment visually more spacious is easy! Light tones deceive our brain, visually expand the space, so even in a small bright room you will feel more spacious. On the contrary, dark or saturated tones will narrow the space.

Levity. How to make massive, bulky wardrobe visually lightweight? There are a few principles that will help you achieve the illusion of levity:

  • Light colors are lightweight than dark
  • Muted colors are lightweight than saturated
  • If two colors have the same brightness and saturation, than cool colors will seem more lightweight

Nuance. If you want to focus on certain details – choose a contrasting colour. For example, red and green, blue and yellow. Color Wheel can help you to choose the color nuance.

Zoning. The combination of different colors is a great way to divide the space into zones: to separate the kitchen from the corridor, to highlight the working area and recreation area. Simply painting the walls in different colors or shades, you can get the visual effect of different rooms. It is advisable to choose shades that are not very different in intensity, with a difference of two or three tones, or contrasting. When zoning color accessories may be unnecessary, that is, you can save a lot. 

Height. To make the ceiling seem higher than it actually is, it should be taken into account that cold shades visually distance the object and light make it more spacious. 

Take into account all the characteristics of the color, its effect and how it looks in natural and artificial light. Then you will be able to create a harmonious interior that is comfortable for life.

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Color has symbolic meaning in many in many cultures and religions. Let us consider the meaning of the colors in such religions as: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism.

Christianity. In Christianity, a rather limited color palette is used - mostly black and white. The main color of Christianity is considered to be just white. White is a symbol of purity, and therefore of God. By the way, in ancient times, ministers of the church did not wear black attire, this color was used only for everyday life. During the divine services both Catholic and Orthodox priests were always dressed in white.

Black represents the negative side of life. Used as a symbol of mourning, priests dressed in black robes participate in funerals and funeral processions.

At the beginning of the heyday of Christianity, another color was widely used - yellow. This color symbolized the sun and God as the king of heaven. But since the twelfth century, they began to consider yellow as the color of Judas, that is, the color of lies and betrayal. The reason for such judgments was the yellow vestment of Judas Iscariot.

Red - the color of blood, is considered a symbol of cruelty and sin. This color is also a mandatory feature in the clothing of priests in the days of the commemoration of the sufferings of Jesus.

Islam. The first primary color in Islam is white, a symbol of Holiness and dignity. Unlike Christianity, white color is used in funeral ceremonies, but it is not a color of the tragedy. For years of existence of this religion, the white color acquired the collective meaning of all good, the best qualities.

Yellow is the second primary color. It is the symbol of the brilliant sun, gold, joy.

The third primary color is red. In contrast to the biblical symbolism, red in Islam it is a positive symbol. Yeah, it also represents the blood, but in this case as a symbol of beauty and sincere emotions.

Green is the color of the Muslim Paradise. Green in Islam has a very positive meaning. The sacred banner of Mohammed and the entire Muslim world colored in green. This case reflected in the modern flag and heraldic symbols of the Eastern countries.

Buddhism and Hinduism. The orange color in Buddhism and Hinduism is the color of humility, detachment from material goods and of human vices. In clothes of this color, saints ascetics traditionally weared, and so did Buddha. Today orange is the official color of these two religions, but there are a few dominant colors:

Golden - sun light, which symbolizes life, truth, immortality, wealth, power, faith, Nirvana. In numerous sculptural and painted images of the Buddha appears certainly Golden.

White (the color of the Mother) represents Holiness, purity, purity, mastery of oneself, the salvation.

Red/brown (the color of the father) represents materiality, joy, activity, creativity, life.

Blue is eternity and loyalty.

Yellow is the color of spirituality. The Buddha, as a rule, dressed in yellow garments.

In the tradition of Mahayana (one of the two main directions of Buddhism) – there is a whole system color sequence, which lead to enlightenment (to the Buddha). Black, blue, red, yellow, white, gold. This sequence denotes a path to the state of perfection - Nirvana, the color symbol of which is golden.

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Every day we are confronted with a lot of colors and shades. Some names we know from childhood, and the name of the other not even think about. Despite the official classification, the creative people came up with fancy names of colors, which will not meet every day. Here are the most interesting of them.

Bismarck (or Bismark-Furioso) brown with a red tint. Named after Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany. Used for marking the waterline on the hull.

Verdigri. Grey with some greenish colour. Is the color of the thin oxide-carbonate film of natural origin, formed on copper or bronze is exposed to air, water, carbon dioxide, or sulfur. This is the green patina that covers the old copper pipes and the roof, gives the Statue of Liberty characteristic bluish-green color.

Surprise Dauphin. It is the color of childish surprise. That is, speaking in a rude, popular language - this is diarrheic color. It is something between a yellow-brown with a greenish tinge. According to legend, this name comes from the time of Marie Antoinette. The royal woman gave birth to a son, he was publicly emptied, but the woman did not lose her head and called this color of children's surprise “the surprise of the dauphin”.

The color of a frightened mouse – light grey, in people it is called smur. Unfortunately the origin of this name is unknown.

Toad fainted. This color was not invented by royal families, but by the developers of the Yandex search engine. If you enter such a request on foreign resources, you will not get anything, because there is no answer to it. If you describe this color, it is something between a gray-green and a stone.

Unusual colors attract people, so they are often used for color characteristics of cosmetics, clothes, furniture, cars. This kind of marketing, the purpose of which is to entice the consumer into the trap of novelty.

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Each color has its own spirit. Color not only sets the atmosphere in the room, but also can affect our mood. For this reason, the selection of a palette in your house, apartment or room should be done very carefully.

First, decide what mood in what room you want to create. For example: a workplace (cabinet), it is best to decorate in colors which set for a long and concentrated work. For the living room, the ideal setting will be relaxing shades. For the kitchen and bedroom - cozy.

How to combine colors and shades

It is sufficient to use the simplest formula 60\30\10. Let's say you chose three colors. Еhe main should occupy 60% of the room and furniture, additional – 30% (for example, furniture and floors), accent – 10%, this shade is good for small parts.

Black

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Dark, but stylish and cozy. When choosing wallpaper prefer matte options. Here the main advantage is to emphasize the main color with the help of contrasts or shades of gray.

Best combinations with black:

  • Black, brown, white;
  • Black, yellow, grey;
  • Black, yellow, purple.
  • Black grey, white.

White

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Visually expands a tiny room, ideal for small apartments. It is sutable for the living room and bedroom. White makes the room more bright, very positive.

Best combination with white:

  • White, beige, grey;
  • White, pink, beige;
  • White, beige, yellow


Green

 Relaxes, causes extremely positive emotions. For the bedroom suitable green gentle shades, for the working area - olive.

The best combination with the green:

  • Olive, grey, brown;
  • Green, brown, dark red;
  • green, white, beige.



Blue 

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This color can be used in almost any room. Light colors suitable for the bedroom, the darker - will adjust the working mood. The truth is not to choose too dark shades, because they are pumping sadness and depression.

The best combination with blue;

  • Blue, white, grey;
  • Blue, grey, brown;
  • Blue, white, yellow.

Red

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Perhaps it is the only color that is not desirable to use as the main one. The abundance of red will irritate the eyes, because this color creates an atmosphere of stress. A completely red room is more associated with the TV series of Twin Peaks or some kind of horror film than with a cozy home.

Best combination with red:

  • Terracotta, light grey, beige;
  • Red, white, black;
  • Red, grey, brown.

Yellow

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The color is joyful and bright, a good option for a bedroom or a children's room. But still it is important not to overdo with it and use low saturated hue, avoiding lemon color.

Best combination with yellow:

  • Yellow, white, brown;
  • Yellow, white, grey;
  • yellow, orange, green.

If you are having difficulty selecting colors for the interior, or you are in doubt about the selected combinations, the Color Assist application will help you. It's enough to add your favorite colors and the app will choose combinations. Create a beautiful interior is now easy!

And remember - the main thing is to understand what kind of atmosphere you need.
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Different colors affect the person in different ways. Some cause calm, others - anxiety or joy. But there are colors that do not cause any feelings, except disgust. Let`s analize this most vile of existing colors and its practical application.

GfK Bluemoon conducted a study to identify the most unpleasant for human perception  color. Various surveys were conducted and in each of them there was an undeniable "winner" - shade of "opaque couché", "gray-dark brown". It can be described as the color of excrement and marsh. Not the most pleasant association, is not it? The digital representation is rgb(74, 65, 42), #4a412a

You will be wondering why GfK Bluemoon conducted such a strange study?

The answer is that the Australian government with help of this color is fighting with smoking, and quite successfully. According to another study, the use of this color in the design of packs of cigarettes leads to quite a significant reduction in tobacco sales. For example, "opaque couché" occupies more than half of the total area of the package. Moreover, as of today, this innovation has already been adopted by a number of European countries, including Great Britain.

It is worth mentioning that the idea that all cigarette packs should have one standardized design with the use of a large number of dark brown, color images, emblems appeared in New Zealand in the late 1980-ies. Further, the proposal was discussed more than once, but it has come to be implemented in Australia.

Whether the color of excrement and marsh can really reduce the number of smokers will be shown only by the time..

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Surely, you are already familiar with the work of David Fincher. Among the most popular of his works are such films as: "Zodiac", "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button", "Fight Сlub" and "The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo". Many people call David a  "Prince of Darkness", and they are right, because in his paintings dominate the dark color palette. It usually consist of colors such as yellow, green and blue, i.e. the colors of the films is chosen according to the principle of the triad. But there is the films of Fincher, which is based on the contrast between warm and cold colors.

Correctly selected color tones create a good mood, enhance the impression of music and game of actors. For example, in the film "The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo" the color of the past on the screen is much darker than the color of the present, you can see it with the example of these two frames.

This means that the characters in the movie are experiencing is not the warmest emotions, remembering old times. In "Zodiac" Fincher with the help of gloomy tones conveys the fatigue of the main characters, they seem to fade together with the color scale.

With the change of tone is changing the behavior of the characters, they become very lethargic, their appearance is changing. In this case, the color change everything is also intended to emphasize the state of the characters, not only emotional, but physical.

The story of Benjamin Button is told these days from a hospital. The colors of these frames maximum faceless, the absence of life is feeling. Within the story there are flashbacks, most of which are cold. But when Benjamin becames younger, the colors of the flashbacks abruptly changed to the warmer pastel palette, thus symbolizing the white band in the character's life.

Cold and warm colors - are the most important ingredients in David Fincher's ideal author's recipe, according to which he, one by one, prepares masterpieces of modern cinematography.

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Ingmar Bergman made black and white films all his life, but for the "Cries and Whispers" he made an exclusion. Red, white, black are the main colors of the film. Each of them tries to resist the onslaught of another and all this ultimately creates vivid visual images.

Three colors in "Cries and Whispers" is so tightly connected that it can be completely silent: facial expressions of the main characters, the camera angles and colors in the frame can fully describe what is happening in the frame. Bergman's color is more expressive than any dialogue. Color changes replace the plot of the movie, they say much more than words.

Red, according to Bergman, is the soul, the protagonist of the film. It prevails in almost every frame and especially in the scenes that take place in the manor house. Red color is the conductor between the scenes, between the past and the present.

White is a thematic color, first of all it is connected with faith in God. For example, all the main characters of the picture are dressed in white, which symbolizes purity. When they lose faith, they dress in black, which clearly indicates the approach of death. By the way, black is also one of the key colors. 

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"Cries and Whispers" combines monochromatic colors rather unique way. Red is present in 90% of duration of the film. Its inseparable connection with white and black creates a dichotomy, that is, a duality, a gradual division into two parts. If red is a soul, then black and white are her two collide states. By the way, even the name of the film is two opposite words.

This work with color is amazing, it's not a modern movie, where you can easily customize any shade. "Cries and Whispers" shows that a exellent use of color in the movies was long before the beginning of the digital era.

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Long before the appearance of full color cinematography, the creators of silent films used color for visual storytelling or to recreate any effects. Over time, the directors who put the main emphasis on the visual flow, started to create their own color palettes that are remembered not worse than the film itself.

Build a special mood of the film pretty much depends on the creation of a limited, catchy and memorable color palette. That is, the filmmakers use a few colors from the entire visible spectrum. Let's look at a selection of the best color palettes in the history of cinema.

Limited color

In films with a color limitation, everything is black and white, except for one key object that stands out against the background of the faded environment due to the very bright color. In fact, this is the first color technique in the cinema, because earlier the color could be added exclusively by hand, by painting the film. In modern cinema, this technique is used in order to emphasize the emotional tension as in the movie "Schindler's List".

The most striking example of the use of a palette with limited color is "Sin City". The color in this film is used so narrowly that it becomes an important, integral part of the plot.

A monochrome palette

The essence of using a monochrome palette is to select one color on the color wheel, play with saturation, but still only stick to it. A similar technique is often used to separate the time frame of the story or to demonstrate flashbacks of one of the characters.

For example, in the film "Only God Forgives" the blue color and its shades are used to show the departure of the hero Ryan Gosling from reality. According to Ingar Bergman, the director of "Screams and Whispers", the red color helps to reflect the interior of the soul.

A complementary colors

In the complementary palette, one color is taken and the opposite color is selected. It is quite attractive, eye pleasing color palette. The most striking example of this scheme is the combination of orange and blue, which have become boring for the viewer because of the widespread use in Hollywood blockbusters. Filmmakers use this technique not from laziness, in fact it is the best way to show the human skin. Perhaps the most memorable example of this contrast is the film "Mad max: Fury Road".

But nothing prevents us to turn the color wheel and get much more original contrasts, as in the film "Curse of the Golden flower" directed by Zhang Yimou.


Triad

The triad is three colors, located at an equal distance from each other on the color wheel. Such combination you could see in a game "Twister". This scheme can ideally create a light, carefree mood. Triad vitalize the scene, even if the colors are not saturated.

Triad is one of the less popular color schemes in the films. It is difficult to implement, but gives quite a striking effect. Prominent examples are the paintings of Jean-Luc Godard's "Pierrot Le fou" or "Contempt". In this case there is a triad of red, blue and green colors.


Neon palette

Playing with brightness and saturation you can get an unusual neon effect. It is used to recreate the aesthetics of signage of Tokyo at night. Here as the "Blade Runner" (both the original and the sequel) and of course "The Neon Demon". Muted mid-tones in these works is still there, but neon takes the maximum amount of screen time. Everything here is either all black or all drowning in neon light.


Pastel palette

The pastel colors is used mostly in old comedies or fairy tales. Pastel colors can be found in the "The Danish Girl" and even "The Shining", but master of these palette is considered to be Wes Anderson, and the most striking example of his work – "Hotel "Grand Budapest".


The muted palette

Unsaturated, dark, nude palettes are a favorite of the entire post-apocalyptic genre. Under a muted color palette may be meant desaturation, discoloration of everything around, such as in the film "The Road" by John Hillcoot. It is the gloomy image of faded everyday life not only attracts the eye, but also cuts into the subconscious, because it is associated with large-scale catastrophes. The world of "Matrix" by Andrew and Laurence Wachowski shows in unsaturated greenish tones.


Color can affect us not only psychologically but also physically and often we do not notice this. Color is a powerful tool, knowledge of color theory gives us the ability to control what is happening around with colors and shades.

If you want to practice creating your own color palettes - you can try the mobile app Color Assist. It allows you to quickly and easily select the most suitable color solutions on color wheel.

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Red is one of the most exciting color of the visible spectrum. For example, the woman in the red dress (or any clothes of this color) just magically affects the behavior of men around, it seems more accessible and enticing.

You will say that this is because of the expressiveness and brightness of the red dress, which distinguish the girl from the surrounding mass, but it's not just that.

The reason is simple - all because of primitive instincts. At us, descendants of primates, this color is directly connected with sexual desire. The answer lies in the fifth point of the baboon. It is the fact that the skin of the females of many primates during the mating season reddens, and this signal remained in our subconscious till this day. By the way, close to the theme of red and the theme of women's critical days. It is interesting that the ban on sex during menstruation is exclusively a human invention, or rather, a church one. Because for all animals these days are a signal for mating.

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Red or White – which men will prefer?

The Discovery channel had quite an unusual experiment. For it was specially hired the actress, who walked in the streets of new York, first in white and then in red dress. The aim of the study was to find out which color of the outfits more attract mens attention. The first dress was white. For 30 minutes, the girl walked down the street, but no one noticed her, she was refused to any requests. The next try, but with a red dress, showed the opposite result.men constantly looked back at the girl and even ridiculous requests like "transfer across the street" or "call a friend" were never rejected.


As it turned out, the red color not only attracts attention, but also awakens not the most modest fantasies. If the girl in red, it does not matter whether it's a linen, a dress or a simple T-shirt, in a man wakes up his ancient ancestor-primate.

By the way, for purity of experiment it would be desirable to repeat a similar experience among peoples, which little affected by civilization.

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What is the color from the point of view of physics? The question is not so simple as it seems at first sight. Color is a physical property of light. From the point of view of physics, different colors of objects do not exist by themselves.

Physics considers color as an electromagnetic wave. Any wave has length – the distance between crests. The wavelength is inversely proportional to its frequency. Visible light is the wavelength, which is able to perceive by the human eye. Light with a large wavelength(low frequency waves) our eyes perceive as red, and the light with the smallest length(high frequency waves) - purple. Yeah, it sounds a bit technical and confusing, but it says that the colours we perceive depend on wavelengths(frequencies) of visible light. Each color of the spectrum has a corresponding range of frequencies.

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Why do we see color?

Nature gave man the ability of color perception: we see everything around in a variety of colors and shades and do not even think that it can be otherwise. The main reason why we see the color is in the impact of light with a certain wavelength on the retina. Light with the largest wavelength is called infrared and light with the shortest wavelength is ultraviolet. But, for the human eye not available neither infrared nor UV light, however, we perceive a large range of wavelengths of other colors.

For example, when a white light beam falls onto a subject, most of the light waves are absorbed by the surface, and only a certain part that is in a certain range is reflected. Light waves in this range we perceive as the color of the object. In fact, the color of objects appears only when light strikes them. For example, just look at the banana, this fruit absorbs all the light except the yellow that you normally see.

Human anatomy

The perception by our eyes and the transformation of visual impulses by the brain allows a person to see the colored picture. The light perceived in the layer of cells that covers the posterior surface of the eyeball called the retina. There are three types of light receptive cells called cones, which respond roughly to red, green and blue light. Each cone sends a brain signal - and you can see some color. Other colors are obtained by joint transmission of signals from several types of cones and their mixing by our brain. For example: red + green = yellow

When the light is not enough, the cells-sticks are activated in the retina. Since there is only one kind of this cells, only one type of signal can transmit to the brain: light exist or not. Our eye can not distinguish color ranges in reflected waves and all objects appear gray or black.

Invisible colors

The human eyeis able to perceive both long and short waves, but on both sides of the spectrum there are radiation, the light from which we simply can not see. Shorter than ultraviolet and longer than infrared waves we simply don't notice. Color-blind in case of different kind of deviations in the perception of light, can not perceive even the visible part of the light spectrum.

There are also exist colors that restrict our brain. It's hard to see red with a green tint and yellow with a blue tint. Why this is so you can learn from article Impossible colors.

And by the way, according to scientists opinion, the world looks either absolutely black or completely white. Without color perception our life would be extremely gloomy, like the scenery of some fantastic film.

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Colorization (coloring) is any translation process monochrome images( b\w, sepia) to color. This is quite a laborious process in our days is used for the restoration of old photos, films and even paintings.

How black and white becomes color? Color in image can be chosen manually or automatically with specialized software. The coloring process is extremely time-consuming. Recreating the colors of the old black-and-white film can take several years of hard work, as a lot of time is a study of the costumes, furnitures of the past. Color is restoring from archives, artists ' sketches, stories of eyewitness. The color of the face for coloring is the most complex. Human skin color takes different shades under different light sources, so it is not enough to choose the just right tone of beige. Do not think that it is possible to restore the truth natural color or shade of objects in the photo. It is also worth considering the fact that even modern technology can't "revive" old, heavily worn by time frames.

History. Despite the fact that the coloring seems to many peoples something new, this process invented simultaneously with the film, but the first attempt to make colored movies were taken at the dawn of the twentieth century. The first painted film is a picture of "Sketches from the life of England," which was colored in 1902.

Shooting the moon in the Apollo program - is the most famous project in which coloring.

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Why we need colorization? A human see the world in color. Black-and-white image contains less information which is transmitted to the brain and, consequently, causes lesser level of excitement and involvement in the story. The brain remains not fully loaded and therefore the audience's ability to perceive is not fully used. The rating of the painted films several times exceeds the rating of black and white pictures, because most modern viewers, unfortunately, do not appreciate black and white cinema.

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When talking about Wes Anderson, people always notice a few features of his style: symmetry, puppet animation, a great soundtrack and of course the color palette.

The color has always been the main feature of the Anderson films. This independent film director always prefers soft pastel colors - no matter it is landscape, or the interior of the house, or a suit of one of the characters in the movie.

It is difficult to imagine "The excellent Mr. Fox" without golden and amber hues, "Hotel Grand Budapest" without different shades of pink and blue.

Anderson's style so recognizable, that has already become part of modern pop culture. People look at reality through the eyes of Anderson, showing you all of this in Instagram, shoot a parody video about how could look a particular film if it was shot by the Anderson.

Amazing color palette leads to the fact that the films of Wes Anderson can be recognized instantly, by one frame. You can see more palettes in the video below:

(Video: "the colour palette by Wes Anderson")

Undoubtedly, the favorite color Anderson is yellow, bright yellow color is present literally everywhere, in every picture.

And even if you simplify the film to a banal sets of colors, then even fans of the film maker will be able to understand who is who.

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Since ancient times people are looking for relationships between personality type and any parameters. The relationship of human nature and color has been repeatedly confirmed by scientists, by the way, there is even a whole branch of science – psychology of color.

Favorite color of the person can tell a lot about his character and behavior. It is worth mentioning that the color preferences may eventually change, and thus changing the personality. If you are interested in any person - just find out his favorite color.

White. People who like white color are perfectionists by nature, they are very organized and neat, fundamentally apply to any business. Love to white appreciate the simplicity in everything.

Black. "Mysterious" personality, at least they think so. Love to black may indicate that the person is trying to suppress the positive emotions associated with more vivid colors.

Pink. Connoisseurs of pink is often a soft and very quiet people. They don't get nervous for no reason at all and rather to focus on a specific task, so better able to cope with long-term projects.

Red. Purposeful and even a bit aggressive people, quick-tempered, but quickly calm down. Lovers of red can't sit still so I don't understand how others can live without adventure and adrenaline.

Purple. Are individualists at most. They appreciate freedom of expression, witty, love to make fun of others, but they themselves are very sensitive and touchy. Consciously they strive to stand out against the background of others..

Yellow. Yellow color lovers like sensations, they strongly resist any restrictions. Such people are resilient and have a well developed imagination, but, unfortunately, they do not like to take any responsibility.

Green. Always know what they want and do not need other advice, even from specialist. Calm and restrained in the most critical situations.

Blue. People who love blue, incredibly sensitive. They feel comfortable only in a circle of good friends and loved ones. They are very demanding not only to themselves, but also to the surrounding people, therefore it is sometimes problematic to achieve their respicting.

Important! The color is not a label for life – it represents only the approximate nature and characteristics of human behavior, perhaps some just enjoy the hue without any reference to the type.

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Red is the colour of danger, blood, death and traditional color of executioner clothes. That is why dressed in this color so-called "food for powder". It is the characters of the second plan, which die a violent death as soon as was introduced in the story. 

Well, gentlemen, you`re all going to die...

The term went from "Star Trek", where the officers in red died as soon as they stepped on the surface of a new planet. Soon the trend became obvious for the viewer - if the probability of survival of the characters in the yellow jerseys is 100%, the probability to die for a character in a red jersey still equal 100%. In addition, red clothing is a great target.

But, by the way, the well written hero dressed in red, gets injured no less than the same "red shirts". They of course never die, but sometimes it seems that it would be better dead...

Where else can you find such relationship:

  • South Park. The hero of the animated series Kenny wears a jacket in carrot color and dies a brutal death in every episode, where he took at least some part;
  • Deadpool. This hero of Marvel comics wears a red suit, it is constantly shoot, maim and try to kill themselves in sophisticated ways;
  • Hellboy. The situation is similar with Deadpool, but unlike the first - Hellboy red completely. In the eponymous novels by Guillermo del Toro, this demonic guy get hit a lot, none of the characters in the movie is not getting such many injuries.

In the first color films this approach, perhaps, dictated by considerations of censorship, because on wounded or slain hero, dressed in red, no longer need to paint blood stains.

There are exceptions to the rule, for example, in the TV series "Game of thrones" filmed for the fantasy series "a Song of Ice and fire" George R. R. Martin die all, and secondary and main characters. However, almost none of them wears a red and to calculate the potential victim is simply impossible.

If George R. R. Martin wrote the scenario for the TV series "Star Trek", the characters would look like in the image below:

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The perception of red color has evolved over thousands of years to help us to distinguish edible fruits from their natural contrasting environment.

Yes, the bright red color certainly attracts our attention, but the essence of its impact on our brain, much deeper. On a psychological level, red speaks of danger, excitement, passion, power, aggression and success. These reactions are not only emotional, but also physiological.

The color of impulsivity. Red color more noticeable than others encourages people to quick decisions. This is often used by marketers, staining him with a banner "big sale". Focusing on the red color leads to shortness of breath, increase blood pressure. A person's heart rate increases, therefore, it becomes more susceptible to rash, impulsive actions. This effect has been noted by the owners of the casino -  the players play more risky, make more bets.

Red is often used in food manufactures and fast food: KFC, Burger King, McDonalds and many others. It activates salivary glands, which leads to feelings of hunger and at the same time tiring on the eyes, makes us eat faster and more quickly to leave the institution.

The color of passion. Red evokes strong emotions and passion. No wonder there is a district of the "red light". The scientists make the explanation. A recent study published in the journal "Experimental social psychology" found that men often consider the woman in red as more inclined to play the flirting and sexual contact.

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The color of danger. At the same time, red is often perceived as a warning of danger. It is associated with a ban, because in fact the fire is red. For ancient man, red was the signal to escape, was a factor of the destruction. For this reason most of the warning signs painted in red.

Yes, red is very noticeable, "alarm" color, but at the same time the visibility of any color depends on contrast with the surrounding background and the context in which it used. This property need to be clearly understood and red color should used in the context of the entire composition so that it awake only proper feelings, and not Vice versa.

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At this moment there are 197 sovereign states, and each country has its own unique flag. But there is an interesting detail - there is a color that does not exist on any of the flags. This color is purple.

The reason

The reason for such color discrimination is very simple. Until the end of the XIX century peoples has a difficulty with extraction of the purple dye for cloth. It existed only in the form of a pigment extracted from marine mollusks of the family Muricidae.

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Purple dye was very limited, and the extraction process was so long and expensive that the production of just one kilogram of purple pigment needed to process more than 10,000 molluscs. Therefore, in those days purple clothes were a luxury.

Closer to the beginning of the twentieth century the situation is changing. The сhemist William Perkin chemically synthesized the precious purple dye, thus he save millions of mollusks from death.

Around the same period started mass production of purple fabrics, but the vast majority of countries already decided on the colors of their flags and, of course, purple and remained without attention.

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Unexpected combinations of colours, lots of neon, natural, muted and luxurious, rich colors – these are just a few color trends that in the opinion of science fiction filmmakers await us in the not very distant future. What other read in this article.

Let`s review only movie fiction writers, in the filmography of which there are at least a few pictures about the future. Book fiction will not be here, because it is very problematic to imagine in which colors they saw the future.

Ridley Scott: natural, muted, sickly yellow

According to Ridley Scott filmmaker, the future will be colored mostly with muted shades of natural colors, because most of people will move to permanent residence in the space. The action takes place in a closed space with insufficient light: buildings, cabins of spaceships, corridors of the extraterrestrial colonies , just like in a submarine. Bright colors in this future there are no jobs.

In the interiors of the spaceship "Nostromo" (Alien 1979) there are only natural, not distorted colors and shades.

Dirty yellow is also the main color in "Prometheus" by Ridley Scott. Shades of yellow, sickly colors slowly affect the final perception of the movie, made "Prometheus" very expressive.

Yellow accent is everywhere, this pastel yellow-green creates a feeling of lifelessness. Each frame in the film is sterile, cold, as if treated with bleach.

Neil Blomkamp: the muted, apocalyptic shades

The entire filmography of the South African science fiction filmmaker Neill Blomkamp (District 9, Elysium, Chappie) riddled with social problems and colors of dust, dirt and poverty - the dull, muted shades.

Denis Villeneuve: neon, luxury gold

Blade runner 2049 vivid example of how color and light help filmmaker to create the right atmosphere.

Each color has thousands of shades, and every shade carries a specific idea. It helps the author to properly convey idea to the viewer. 

Analyzing the colors of the movies, we can conclude that the filmmakers predict not very the bright, saturated and colourfull future for us.

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Chromophobe or fear of colors is often seen in people with rapid reaction to certain olors. Such people can completely exclude a specific color from his life, avoiding it at all. The fear of each color has also its name, for example, the fear of red is photophobia, and yellow — xanthophobia. Interestingly that colorblind people can suffer chromatophobia too. Life for these people becomes extremely problematic as the contemplation or the presence of a number of various colors and shades causes panic or anxiety.

Reasons

According to researchers, this fear is related to some subconscious instincts of human. It is known that the most poisonous insects and animals painted in bright colors – red, orange, yellow. Such color as though hints to a predator that extraction is dangerous and it is better to avoid it in every possible way. This is the main explanation for the irritant effect caused by the "flashy" colors of objects.

Any long-forgotten event usually leads to the development of the disease, for example: a small child wandered to the slaughterhouse and now the red color is subconsciously associated with fear, death and disgust. Over time, the child will grow up and forget about the case with the slaughterhouse, and the nervous system's fear of color will grow into a phobia. The subconscious mind deliberately builds guard to protect themselves from the danger associated with a particular color.

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Treatment and symptoms

Among the symptoms of chrometophobia: increased pressure, a sense of panic, increased heart rate, nausea, dyspnea, chills - and these are just some of the symptoms. Fortunately, this rather specific phobia in the modern world has already learned to treat quite effectively. When the patient in a conscious age can remember the reason of the scare of his childhood event, then he will understand how unfounded his fear of this or that color. He learn how to gradually control it and can be cured of chromatophobia.

The patients can take drugs in the presence of bright colors if necessary to restrain the panic attack symptoms. However, they are not an independent method of treatment.

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Green rivers and lakes, blue oceans, absolutely colorless water in a glass. So what color water actually is? The answer to this question only one. Pure water is blue. The fact that the color is very faint, and therefore invisible in a small glass. But if we fill this with water even a small pool, you will notice a distinct blue hue, shade the water.

What affects the color of the water?

The color and shade of water is directly dependent on the reflection and absorption of light by the molecules of the liquid. For example, white sunlight can be decomposed into several component colors, their combination is called a spectrum. The PurePro molecules absorb the red-green spectrum, the rays of the blue end of the spectrum are reflected from the molecules of the liquid, therefore, the actual and perceived color of the water is as blue.

But in natural pond the color of the water can be very diverse. For example, in the heart of ocean water is dark blue, along the shore is blue, greenish or yellowish. Such a wide variety of colors and shades occur due to the presence in water of different particles and on the depth of the reservoir.

The green shade of the water gets because of the presence of a large number of chlorophyll containing phytoplankton – microscopic aquatic plants. Like land vegetation, these organisms absorb the rays of the red and green part of the spectrum and reflect green. So we see greenish water near the shores of seas and oceans. During the active growth of microorganisms this color intensifies, becoming more intense and explicit.

Color perception under water

Interestingly, the water changes color perception under water. For example, if you dive under the water in the yellow suit, then at the surface it will appear to be yellow. If you dive a little deeper, the color of the suit will begin to change. Since you're starting to get the rays only blue and green part of the spectrum, the costume will appear to be blue or bluish.

In the literature dedicated to underwater photography, you can find a diagram illustrating the absorption of water with increasing depth. This schema roughly demonstrates the process of absorption of colors in a very transparent sea water, with high standing sun.

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Gender significantly affects color preferences. Even from a young age we are beginning to impose information related to gender, trying to build a particular concept. It can be some hobby, games, sports, eating habits, clothes and of course a color.

Parents literally from the cradle start to confirm gender stereotypes about colors, dressing boys in blue clothes, girls in pink. This colour therapy after some time leads to the fact that children integrate these colors in their own perception of concepts "man" and "woman." So we begin to feel the need to match our own gender: boys tend to prefer a darker, "masculine" colors, girls tender, "feminine".

Pretty in pink

Experts LoBue & Deloache, in 2011, analyzed how the age changes perception of pink color. The experiment involved children from seven months to five years.

As it turned out, the girls began to feel a great sympathy to all pink. At the same time, boys pink irritated, they tried to distance themselves more and more from this color. That is, their reverence changed simultaneously with the process of growing up, as they more and more learned about their gender.

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It is not easy to investigate the influence of red color on the psyche of the bulls. But it was made the conclusion as a result of many experiments, that almost all mammals, including bulls, do not distinguish color. The tests were carried out repeatedly to develop the best color solutions for combat techniques, but all these experiments showed that the bull is absolutely indifferent to the red and reacts rather to sudden movements than to the color itself.

Excitement. But the red cloak attracts the audience. The exciting influence of red color has been proved on the human mind for a long time. The excitement is mostly stimulated by danger and tension during the bloody battle of a bullfighter with a bull. As a result, the performance is especially spectacular.

MollificationThe red color makes possible to hide the cruelty of the bullfight, because the blood on the red cloak is less visible, and this allows people to feel quet the bull killing. 

The bull does not need red, this coat color is more a tribute to traditions and is unlikely to be changed someday.

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Do animals perceive color in the same way as humans? Each of us asked this question sooner or later. But it is not so easy to give an accurate and exhaustive answer to it. The human has color vision, so it is quite difficult for us to imagine a completely discolored world. Naturally, we have an assumption that all living things see about the same as we do, but this is far from the case.

The color is the difficult concept to determine and generally quite complex. It is not easy to investigate the animals color perception, so scientists still have some difficulties in interpreting this ability. After all, in fact, no object has its own color, it simply absorbs white daylight and reflects it in a certain spectrum. For example, the leaves of trees reflect all parts of the spectrum except the actual green, thus is we see green vegetation.

How were the experiments conducted

Many experiments which were conducted on mammals, reptiles, birds and fish were based on the fact that animals were accustomed to spicific color. One color signified feeding, and the other did not. After a certain reaction to a particular color was developed after a while, its hue or brightness was gradually changed in order to make sure that the choice was not due to the amount of brightness.

It is safe to say that animals vision is monochrome if after changing the brightness, the animal ceases to react in a certain way to color. If it continues to perceive colors regardless of the shade or amount of brightness, then it sees the difference and is able to separate the two colors from each other. However, this still does not give a 100% answer about color sensitivity. 

And the main problem is that almost every kind of animal perceives colors in its own way.

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Have you noticed how the color of food or dishes from which you eat affect on the perception of taste? The Scientists from the Polytechnic University of Valencia and Oxford University noticed and conducted the number of experiments.

It turned out that the hot chocolate, poured into the red or orange cup is much tastier than exactly the same liquid, but already in the white cup.

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57 experimental subjects were offered to try and express their opinion on the taste of hot chocolate during the experiment. They drunk from four cups of different colors: red, orange, white and cream. The testee noted that hot chocolate in the red and orange cups was much more flavorful and tastier than in the others cups.

Also during this experiment it was found out that drinks, poured into the blue dishes, seems colder and thirsty. The cup of yellow color significantly increases the perception of the sour taste of lemon.

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The more brighter and saturated the color of the dish, the more yummy it seems to us. However, the nature use this technique for a long time itself. Most ripe fruits and berries painted in the nature with yellow, red and orange colors. 

Do not allow the contrast of food with dishes, because this can have the opposite effect. The blue plate with fried meat can simply spoil your appetite. That's why, the most cafes and restaurants use neutral white or black dishes.

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Yes, it is. The certain color or shade may be the part of a design patent, that's to be an integral part of a trademark, graphical interface, product, or even an object (and this also happens). From the point of view of marketing the monopoly on a specific color is simply meaningless, because if the competitor wants to color the product in a particular color no one and nothing will prevent him from using a slightly different, unregistered shade. From the point of view of the mass consumer, this slightly different color will not differ from the patented one. It is not easy to protect the corporate color in practice, but there are precedents.

The Louboutins. The red sole of the shoes became the hallmark of the French designer Christian Louboutin. In 2008 the US Patent and Trademark Office registered it as a trademark. The registration in Russia was achieved only in 2012.

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GUI. The US representatives sued the Korean giant for copying the color palette of the graphical interface in the patent war of Apple and Samsung.

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Brown-Eiffel. The Eiffel Tower has been repeatedly repainted throughout its history from yellow to red-brown. But the last few decades the tower has always been painted in the "Brown-Eiffel" - officially patented color. It is close to the natural shade of bronze.

Vanish.  It is also worth mentioning the trademark Vanish, which is the holder of the purple color among the manufacturers of stain removers

The russian practice. In 2016 several large Russian companies: Sberbank, MTS and Gazprom received exclusive rights to use their company colors (green, red and blue respectively). The patent is valid only for the registration of trademarks in a particular field. For example, if a mobile phone operator uses red in his logo, then such company has the potential to acquire a headache in the person of MTS.

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And although the colors have so far been the object of controversy extremely rarely, it seems that everything is still ahead.

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Невозможные цветаThere are impossible chromatic colors that our brains can not properly process, they seem to be "forbidden" by color theory. It is difficult for a person to see red with a green tint and yellow with a blue tint.

Why is this happening?

The reasons of the phenomenon

This is a feature of the functioning of the human visual receptors. The red light, getting on the retina, stimulates cells that capture the red range light and we see red. The green light, getting on the retina, stimulates cells that capture the green range light and we see green. Our brain mixes the information from the receptors as a result of processing these two colors together and we see the brown. The same goes for blue with yellow.

Such illusions show us the other side of the established principle of complementary colors, when two colors of a certain pair are opposed to each other.

Is it possible to see impossible colors?

It is still possible to see the impossible colors. To do this, you need to prevent the brain from mixing two colors.

The scientists from Stanford University conducted the experiments with the help of special equipment in 1982 , when one eye saw blue, the second - yellow. The special device made it possible to track the movement of the eyes and stabilize the position of the color fields accordingly. Such the stabilization of the image led to quite interesting effect. For example, some testee said that the image began to fall apart in some cases and the other testee saw a yellow with a blue tinge. It was the blurring of the boundary between the color fields that aroused the special interest of the scientists Hewitt Crane and Thomas Pyanantha. Usually when you mix these two colors the brain sees green, exactly the same turns with red and green and it turns brown.

This experiment scientific community was apprehended with hostility, but despite this, many people say that sometimes they really manage to see something unreal.

The experiment

Try and you. Carefully look at the two pluses in the center of each of the squares. One eye should focus on the yellow, the second is on the blue in this case. Some people can see the color "yellow-blue" in this image, allowing their eyes to cross so that both symbols are on top of each other. And yes, it turns out not at all and not always from the first time, but sometimes you can see the shades about the existence of which you previously did not guess.

Although such experiments remind us of tricks, they are nevertheless able to explain very important aspects of the view in general and in particular the mechanisms of perception. As studies of perception of "impossible" colors have shown, our brain has not so rigid installations as it was considered earlier.

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The unusual exhibition was opened in St. Petersburg in the autumn of 1880, where only one picture was presented. The whole street was crowded with carriages, people queued for hours and in order to avoid a crush the organizers were forced to launch the audience in groups. The admiring inhabitants looked at the canvas in prayerful silence, some left the gallery with tears in their eyes. What was depicted in that picture? The usual landscape - "The moonlit Night on the Dnieper", written by the hand of one of the greatest artists of Russia Kuindzhi A.I.

The master of color and light

All the Kuindzhi works are distinguished by mastery of color and light. He had a truly unique ability to feel the light transmission and subtle transitions of the tones, which was even checked by the sensivity mesurment device.

The artist was the real master of contrasts and one of his secrets was a system of complementary colors. For example the warm reddish tone of the earth in the picture is contrasted with the cold silvery-green shade of moonlight. You can use the digital color wheel in the Color Assist application in order to get a better understanding of the contrast methods used by the artist. The additional colors are opposite on it.

The master achieved the maximal expressiveness having contrasting colors nearby. 

In addition Kuindzhi was very attentive to the demonstration of his paintings. The whole room was draped with a black cloth, the windows were closed tightly, only room lighting was allowed and the light fell exactly on the picture during the exhibition "Moon Night on the Dnieper". 

The asphalt paints

Another secret of the artist were asphalt paints. The paints was not phosphorous as contemporaries supposed. They were made from asphalt and referred to oil paints. Asphalt paints were used often for glazing, because of its transparency and ease of guidance and also because of its pure brown color.  This paints are easily mixed with any colors, except white, giving them velvety and saturation. In the weak liquor they only enlivens the color, like a lacquer.

This paints dries long enough, which leads to breaking of the varnish. In addition it gradually blackens everything it is connected to, therefore it is mainly used with dark colors. This paints behavior especially noticeable in his masterpiece "Moonlit Night on the Dnieper," which was purchased by Grand Duke Constantine before the exhibition for fabulous money.  The owner highly appreciated this picture took it on a round-the-world trip. The oil paints darkened and faded under the influence of wet and salty air, and now picture differs markedly from the original.

Краски Куинджи потемнели со временем

These all techniques described above taken together created a mysterious glow, which highlights the work of Kuindzhi among other artists.

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The experiments with color are the key to harmony in the movie. Consider the techniques with the light, which was used in the movie "Running on the blade" by the director Ridley Scott.

The limited color palette

Most things in the world are divided between two directions - monotony and diversity. And if in nature the variety of colors and shades prevail, then all creatures of man are inherently monotonous. That's why, we react faster to a monotonous, synthetic image, subject to a clear plan, since this phenomenon is much more rare for the eye than the natural chaos.

Скриншот из фильма «Бегущий по лезвию»

The operator specifically uses a limited color palette (blue and its shades) in this frame, and everything in order to draw the viewer's attention to the characters, to the dialogues, and not to the environment.

Annoying color to the eye

What is annoying, very often attracts attention. You yourself noticed this by the abundance of "screaming" neon signs on the streets of modern cities. For example, in this case, yellow and green colors seem to "shake" the viewer, distract from previous scenes with a monotonous color palette. Now, the main emphasis is not on the hero (it's like in the shadows), but on a futuristic environment. Deckard seems to dissolve in neon, an important person for the film is just an ant in a giant anthill of the future.

Скриншот из фильма «Бегущий по лезвию»

The contrasts

These two frames are made with the difference of a few seconds, the characters are in the same room, and the color and light contrast here is obvious. Light and color shares not only two heroes, but also visually distinguishes a person and a replicant (synthetics). Although, perhaps Ridley Scott wanted to say this and something else.

Скриншот из фильма «Бегущий по лезвию»

Скриншот из фильма «Бегущий по лезвию»

 Interestingly,the replicants are presented in lighter colors in most scenes, while people are almost always in darkness. Although synthetics and do evil, but they do this evil rather forcedly.

By the way, the operator and director Roger Dickins, who shot the original "Runner", was nominated for the Oscar 13 times and this year he still received the treasured statuette, but for "Running on the blade 2049". Still, his work with light and color was finally appreciated!

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Why are the Simpsons yellow? This is an eternal question, to which there is no unambiguous answer. Let us consider some of the most common theories.

 Initially the " Simpson "  were black and white    

Today, the "Simpsons" look as if they were painted by a child who did not have a pink color, well, or a person who had never seen other people. But, in fact, everything was much easier.

 In the early interviews, the creator of the most popular cartoon in the world, Matt Grouning answered this question this way: "Initially my" Simpsons "were black and white, but on TV they wanted the cartoon to be colored. I really do not like that nasty shade of pink, which often imitates the color of human skin. So I decided to give sketches to the animators, and since most of the characters did not separate the face and hair, it was decided to paint them all in one color. And when they brought me yellow-haired Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie, I realized that this is what the viewer needs! "

Branded yellow

Over the years, Grouning's answer has changed and now the yellow has become the trademark of the "Simpsons", that is, the brand element: "There is no person in the world who does not remember exactly how the" Simpsons "look. The yellowness of their skin is the symbol of the brand, the yellow makes the cartoons recognizable. " Do not forget that the yellow color painted the most flinging in the eye of objects: taxis, barriers and some warning signs.

The Simpsons and the color theory

The theory of color says that yellow is best distinguished against the blue sky or, for example, water. Such "yellow" characters as the Simpsons, Minions, SpongeBob, Butters from the "South Park" and Winnie the Pooh are a vivid confirmation of this. 

And the most of the events in the animation tapes occur against the sky, this combination is the most contrast.

In general, the "Simpsons" most likely turned yellow as a result of the experiment - not with radiation, but rather with the attention of the viewer. And today the Homer family is easily recognized around the world.
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Yes,the black holes are really black, because the light waves from it are not reflected in any way, and the object itself does not emit light.The gravitational field becomes so strong during the formation of this cosmic object, that even the rays of light can not escape beyond its limits. And as a result, the area in which the star was previously brightly shining becomes absolutely black.

But it can be seen only on the background of bright glowing objects, for example, during the passage of the star-satellite. In other cases, we see not the hole, but only traces of the absorbed mass, the so-called accretion disk which glows quite brightly. This effect can be seen in the movie "interstellar" by Christopher Nolan.

Astronomers looking for black holes in outer space by the ratio of mass and luminosity. A big blank, black space with a minimal amount of light around usually indicates the presence of a black hole a large mass.

By the way,  the name the object was not immediately. The term was invented by the American physicist John Wheeler, who simply decided that the past is the name "dark star" does not fully reflect the essence of the phenomenon. For the first time the name "black hole" mentioned in the journal Physical Review, initially, the term was considered quite obscene, but then caught on in the scientific community.

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Red is the favorite Kubrick’s color. It exists almost in all the movies, giving them even more surrealism. Indeed, if you look closely at the filmography of Stanley Kubrick, you can clearly see this feature. Red in this case is a symbol of mysticism; it extends anxiety, by using red objects in the frame it constantly refers the audience to the subject of death. Whether it is a boy’s sweater or elevator’s doors from “The Shining”, astronaut’s suits or HAL 9000 sensor from “2001: A Space Odyssey:”

It should be noted that not all the films of Kubrick red finds vivid expression, but most of the key scenes in the films highlighted in this color. This feature at least gives the films uniqueness and originality, but relished not for everyone.

The red color provides a powerful informational impact. It is an excellent tool for creating the right subtext, correct perception and mood. According to Kubrick himself, this effect can be achieved through a successful combination of a surreal image, an abundance of red and specific, "the other world" music.

For example the «Star Gate» scene from “2001: A Space Odyssey” or a scene from «the Shining», where the Elevator doors opens and blood flows foods the corridor, surrounded by strange and frightening sounds. The most memorable scenes are speechless moments where there is nothing but red, music and emotions of the hero.

American designer Rishi Kaneria, released a short video (https://vimeo.com/112129153 ) with shots from Kubrick's films which presented usage of red color.

The short video shows screenplays from “The shining”, "Eyes wide shut", "2001: A Space Odyssey ", “A Clockwork Orange” "Full metal jacket" were following by Beethoven's 9th Symphony.

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David Lynch uses almost the same color palette in most of his movies. For example, other producers and directors are mostly focused on selection of scenery, costumes, and actors. As Tim Burton is all built on the fabulous gothic scenery, Lynch screenplay is all around the colors.

Although every director’s film has his own set of certain colors, you can still highlight a single pattern - a combination of red and blue.

Let's look at the footage from the series "Twin Peaks" 2017

Such a set in Lynch films is of particular importance. For example, red often symbolizes danger or deceit, and blue is a mystery, a mystery that the main hero has to solve. Blue is a symbol of uncertainty.

Despite the limited color set, this color contrast creates a recognizable style of the director. In some moments, such colors seem exaggerated, ostentatious and even base, but in the vast majority of cases red and blue help create a gloomy atmosphere, by means of colors contrast.

In some cases, Lynch uses warm tones, but only to emphasize dark blue or azure objects, since blue refers to a mystery to be solved. In the "Twin Peaks”, series red and blue are used to highlight the transition between the worlds.

In Lynch's works, red is usually complementary to blue. For example – pale blue rose on a background of scarlet cloth, firefighters and police cars blinkers, etc. Moreover, a gloomy and rather ominous red curtain that repeatedly appeared in the director's films.

These two colors contrast conceals some insanity or depravity of heroes behind itself, and is often the key for the spectator.

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Blue color of the hair is a riot. The roots of such association go into the punk culture. Perhaps the most famous characters who painted their hair in blue are:

  • Marge Simpson
  • Malvina
  • Bluebeard

Let's try to guess why did they it?

Marge Simpson

 Marge wears a tall hairstyle- tower with blue hair in the  most episodes of the cartoon. In general, there is no reliable answer why Marge Simpson's hair is blue, and the creator of the «Simpsons» Matt Grouning seems to be confused by himself. In the later episodes, where Marge is shown as a child, her hair is already blue (season 19, 11 series). In the episode «Secrets of a Successful Marriage» Homer says that his wife constantly tinting her hair with blue paint. This sends us to a series of «blue and grey» (22 series of the 5th season). Homer remembers that Marge turned grey at age of 17 in this episode,, and it is not connected with the episodes from childhood.

19 сезон, 11 серия "Это было в 90-ых"

Malvina

Looking at Malvina is the character of the fairy- tale «Golden Key» by Alexei Tolstoy involuntarily wondering, but where did this strange hair color appear?

 It's worth starting with the background: «The Golden Key» which was written based on (and rather splicing) the tale of the Italian writer Carlo Collodi «The Adventures of Pinocchio.» Where Pinocchio turned into the more familiar to us Buratino, and the prototype of Malvina was the Fairy with Blue Hair. That's actually the whole explanation, and that's why the blue hair of the Fairy is a completely different story!

Bluebeard

Bluebeard is the character of the same fairy- tale by Charles Perro, he was a rather terrible man with a beard of blue color. Bluebeard is a serial killer of his wives, he was married 7 times, but no one knows where his spouses went missing. The prototype of the blue beard was a real man — Marshal of France Gille de Re. But why did the beard turn blue?

It worth starting again with the background: Charles Perro traveled around Europe for a long time and collected the local legends. One of them said: one day a young count with the bride were passing by the castle of Gille de Re. Gille de Ré noticed them, invited them to his house, and when the «gatherings» came to an end, the owner of the castle offered the young lady of the count to throw her beloved into a stone pit, and she herself made a «marriage proposal». She, strangely enough refused. And as you might have expected, Gille de Rais brutally dealt with her beloved.

Then he forcibly dragged the girl into the church and began swearing that if she did agree to «give her soul and body forever». And the failed Countess took and agreed, and she turned into the Devil of blue color at that very moment. The devil laughed and said to Gille de Re: «Now you are in my power.» He made a sign, and Gille's beard also turned blue. «Now you will not be Gille de Laval,» Satan shouted. «You will be called Bluebeard!» That's the explanation, in the folklore consciousness, the color of the beard became the «seal of evil spirit».

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The Eiffel Tower is very fond of changes, surprisingly, but throughout history its color has changed quite noticeably many times. It’s hard to imagine how much paint should be used to color such a giant structure. During the history the Eiffel Tower appeared before Parisians and guests of the city in different tones. In total, the tower was repainted 19 times (1 time every 7 years). Below is a shot from "Des Racines et Des Ailes. La Tour Eiffel a 120 ans » documentary.

кадр из документального фильма «Des Racines et Des Ailes. La Tour Eiffel a 120 ans »

At first the tower was painted red (in 1889), 13 years later it was repainted in yellow, in 1899 - in beige, in 1907 - in brown. Since 1954, the tower has become a burgundy red, and in 1968 acquired its proprietary patented color - “Eiffel Tower Brown”.

кадр из документального фильма «Des Racines et Des Ailes. La Tour Eiffel a 120 ans »

About “Eiffel Tower Brown”

In fact, the tower is not painted in one, in three shades of brown colors. It is done so that the color of the tower seemed indistinguishable from a distance. It is quite easy to explain this decision. The structure of the upper tier of the tower has a greater density than on the lower plus the constructions shadows cast are taken into account. if you paint the entire tower in one color, then the places with the largest density of partitions will appear darker, and with the smaller - lighter. That’s how optics lows work, nothing can be done about it! 

Therefore, three shades of the same color were selected for coloring, Regular Tower color maintenance usually takes a year of 25 employees team to paint 250 thousand square meters of metal of the entire construction.

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Perhaps the most intriguing in coloring is the ability to mix colors. This knowledge can be useful both in writing the picture, and when creating a design for your own flat. Unfortunately, the paint market may not have the desired shades, but this is not a problem, because any tone we can create ourselves.

Initially there are only three primary colors that our eyes perceive, they can not be created by mixing — red, yellow and blue. But mixed these colors, you can get almost any shade. For example, green is obtained if you mix blue and yellow, orange — red and yellow, and red and blue in equal proportions will give a purple color. If you use all three colors, then — we get black, although not very clear, so black and white is also recommended to have in your piggy bank at once.

 Of course, the great artists can create much more complex combinations by changing the proportions of the desired color. For example, Van Gogh competing with another artist, could amazingly accurately reproduce the right shade of green color called «green Paolo Veronese». To achieve such a result was considered quite difficult, even for the professional. And at the time of writing the masterpiece «Starry Night» the whole palette of blue shades was used: dark blue-green (blue + yellow), blue with a shade of violet (blue + red + white), royal blue (blue + manjet-pink) and other.

 Of course,there is no need to search for rare shades in the ordinary life, but knowledge of the basics of coloristics will come in handy. It is especially important to be able to receive harmonious shades choosing color solutions for your home. The palette in the store is limited, and accordingly, there is an occasion to try yourself in the role of an artist and play with color. For everyone, there are helpers are the color tables or the ColorMix application.

Mix to your taste, but it is worth considering that the paint should be of the same consistency, ideally, of one firm, in order to obtain a uniform shade.

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The main color function in computer games is to simplify objects identification by player. We easily define virtual apples because they are also red or green as in real world. In games color has other functions as in art, design and movies. Let's take a look how the color elevated in games, the factors of change and how it influenced the games themselves.

Color and game mechanics

Initially games were completely black and white, for example Spacewar (1962). Limited technological solutions and hardware of those years simply was not designed for computer games. However, even existing hardware was enough to run simple games.

After a while, with the advent of more advanced technologies and mass distribution of color TVs, color appeared in games. For example, Galaxian (1978), which used RGB colors.

Since than color has been used not only to identify items, but also became one of the core elements of in game mechanics. For example, puzzle and casual games.

The development of technologies allowed new devices to display more and more colors, and the color palette in games expanded accordingly. By late 80’s 4th generation game consoles could easily display more than 256 colors. Of course, devices that can reproduce the entire visible spectrum still do not exist, but technologies are confidently moves towards this target. 

Some projects are starting to use more shades of primary colors to expand color spectrum. This is a simple way to get a character or an object of a different color by outputting the same sprite (graphic object) just with a slightly different palette.

Everything changes with the appearance of the first, really three-dimensional, first person shooters - colors become more realistic. Color started to be used not only to identify in game items, but also to define friendly and enemy characters. For example, your team mates are highlighted as green and enemies as red, respectively.

This color scheme helps the player to understand what to do: whom to shoot, where to go and what items to collect.

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The color is the most available way to increase the variety of game content. The capabilities of the graphics subsystem and the popularity of certain genres of video games determine the choice of the main color palette of the game.

Below there are examples of how the popularity of colors in computer games has changed over the years. 

If in the late 80's, early 90's computers and game consoles could display a limited number of colors, and the resources of the graphics system were very limited, then over time the situation began to change.The designers, the artists and the game developers no longer need to use bright primary colors. There was an opportunity to display game universes in more realistic colors and semitones. As you can see, after 2012, faded colors and shades begin to dominate in games, even the red color fades slightly, giving way to muffled, realistic and «atmospheric» shades. The discoloration and toning in modern games is not without purpose: the games look more natural, allowing players to fully immerse themselves in the game process.

Plus, the choice of mostly faded tones is due to the fashion for games in the post-apocalyptic entourage and survival simulators in the natural environment. And, of course, in a world that has survived a nuclear war or an invasion of zombies, there can be no question of any bright colors.

Of course, the trends do not stand still, and with the appearance of new topics in computer games, colors will change.

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In the theory of color, yellow is considered the color of happiness, peace and security. It is warm and sunny color. The symbolism of yellow color is unusually contradictory. On the one hand it is the gentle glow of the sun, on the other hand is the withering autumn leaf. The withering, disease become dark symbols of yellow. Of course, each of us will experience unique and quite subjective sensations of color, however, in most cases, the authors can play with colors in such a way as to cause true emotions.

Security. Carelessness. Serenity.

Let's turn to the serial "Very strange cases". Yellow, almost honey, shade in the second season appears in moments when speech is about the house full of security. Even in some way, convenience and comfort. Yellow highlights exactly those places where the characters of the series are not threatened, or moments when the threat recedes.

 At such minutes they can deal with their daily affairs, not forgetting to investigate the circumstances surrounding events. For example, Sheriff Hoper turns his house into a refuge for the Eleventh. Together with the transformation of the room, the colors begin to change: faded and more unpleasant halftones are replaced by a rich warm and cozy saturated yellow. At the same time, the rest of the world outside the door of the house continues to remain cold and very hostile, which of course is reflected in the color scheme.

The another example from this serial is the search for a house. When the Eleventh escapes from the sheriff, a yellow truck drives her home, while she puts all the valuable things into her bag in yellow. Again, in these scenes, yellow symbolizes security, letting us know that at the moment the heroine is not in danger. This color will be constantly used throughout the serial to visually embody security. Approximately the same solutions were applied in such films as "The Incomparable Mr. Fox" and "The Voice of a Monster."

 And if in the first yellow was used to give the warm, lamp atmosphere to the film as a whole, but in the case of "The Voice of the Monster", yellow is security.

The dark side of yellow

The yellow color has another effect is the creating of a hostile and repulsive impression. In the scenes from the laboratory, the yellow is shown dimmer, creating a rather unpleasant atmosphere. But again, at the moment of transition to another dimension, warm yellow (security) was replaced by cold blue (danger) and all this within the same scene!

Bright yellow is the signal color. It calls to focus your attention for preventing the danger, so its use in pauses is more than justified. Drawing our attention, he instantly interests the viewer with what is happening on its background.

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Stanley Kubrick loves red, Martin Scorsese adores red, Coens go crazy from green. You might not know this fact, but Coen brothers apply green colors to almost every movie they make.

Our eyes perceive green color better than anyone else. Being physiologically most optimal it exert relaxing effect on our nervous system and allows our organism to concentrate.

Green is normal, natural color it is a part of our everyday life, but Coens use it in their own way, frequently applying it to crucial turning point of their movies. However, in most cases it remains simply unnoticed. Simply because green is much more restrained and unremarkable unlike the other clear and eye catching colors. It’s enough to take a look at the motel door from “No country for old men”.

For example, the toilet in the film "Inside Llewyn Davis".

Coens green color not only highlights key scenes, but also an objects that are very important for narration. For example, wiretapping device from the mentioned “No country for old men” or a nail varnish on a finger of the girl in “Big Lebowski”.

These details are highlighted for spectators, but not for in film character. Green nail varnish of the girl manicure in “Big Lebowski” gives us a clue for solving the future plot. Coens use green in almost all their films, except “The man who was not there”, because it’s completely black and white and “True Grit” where a very faded, restrained pallet prevails. 

Now you have a new motivation to re-watch brother’s classics, to find a sense of green colors in their films.

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Cinema is not only an interesting story, plot and acting. The movie is the sets, costumes, music, and of course color. In most cases we don't notice what a huge role he plays. Consider some color techniques, which are used in the industry.

Complementary contrast

Complementary colors are used to bring more vivid color contrast, such colors complete each other perfectly. When our eyes notices harmony of the opposites the brain attention is accentuated on this target. Color contrast allows to amplify perception of crucial and dramatic moments. That’s why filmmakers frequently use this technique.

Combination of red and green colors are often used in a combats between good and evil. Notice the shot from “Star Wars” movie with two light swords crossed or a fight scene from “Harry Potter” series. 

Color contrast is never used during the whole film screenplay, despite of all its benefits. The difficulty is that constant usage of bright colors are not enough to obtain necessary effect on the viewer. The contrast should be only used when neutral and smooth scenes are combined with visually saturated.

A change of palette

Video pallet contrast can be used to clearly define the character state. In The Matrix trilogy all the events happens in real world of Zeon or in the cabin of Nebuchadnezzar are shown in more realistic colors with a light shade of blue and gray. The Matrix virtual world is shown in greens – the light of the binary code.

Such contrast helps us to navigate what is happening, to accurately understand in what world events occur, and thus better perceive what is happening on the screen.

A similar effect was used in "Oz the Great and powerful", and not only in the modern film adaptation, but in the first film "the Wizard of Oz" in 1939. The real world is shown here faded, black-and-white. While fairy-land is demonstrated to the viewer in a very bright, intense palette.

In a series of films about the young wizard Harry Potter still applies the color contrast, but still a little different, not so dramatically as in other examples. Many may have noticed how the color palate changed from film to film.In the first parts, warm pastel colors prevail, but after a while, when events begin to acquire an increasingly serious manner, the colors also change. 

Color correction in the film becomes much more gloomy, with a predominance of cool shades and green. The last films, namely, the first and second part of the "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows" are more like a fantasy thriller than the fairy tale about the wizards whose Harry Potter was at the very beginning.

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The repair in the house or in the flat is a difficult and important task. One of the stages of its solution is the search for the primary color in the interior, because it will occupy most of the room. 

In everyday life, the color strongly affects on the mood, attitude and well-being, and the variety of colors is so great that you can discuss the color of the walls in the children's room or the living room for days. How to achieve color harmony? How do not to make a mistake with the choice? 

One of the variants of the solving the problem with the help of ancient Chinese doctrine feng shui, according to which there are ways to attract favorable energy into the house and its circulation. There are eight special signs - trigrams in the fengshui , which are called gua. They are defined in the "Book of Changes" and symbolize the sides of the world. In each gua there are three lines: continuous, denoting the energy of yang, and intermittent, denoting the energy of yin.

The trigrams are arranged in an octagon, the Bagua grid, in the center of which is the yin-yang symbol

How to choose the  color?

Each trigram corresponds to the specific side of the world and favorable colors: 

  • North/Kan gua. Blue, black, blue
  • North-West/Qian gua. White, grey, gold, silver
  • West/Dui gua. White, yellow, gold
  • Southwest/Kun gua. Pink, red, all shades of brown
  • South/Li gua. Red, orange
  • Southeast/Sun gua. Green
  • East/Zhen gua . Black, jade green
  • Northeast/Gen gua. Beige

With the proper arrangement of energy, they form a cycle in which they are reborn, giving life to a new form. 

How To Apply?

We take the grid Bagua and, using the compass, we impose on the plan of the apartment. In order to learn about personal favorable directions, you can use the convenient tool FengShui. 

You can immediately start activating positive energy!

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The principles of harmony are closely connected with our feelings. We have a habit to perceive information through touch, hearing, smell, sensation. Harmony is for each of the organs of perception. So, the harmony in music allows you to create works that people do not cease to listen to after hundreds of years. It fills with positive emotions. We hear music, but we see the color. 

The brain is an amazing organ, and it balances the visible color with an extra one. This feature is inexplicable and little studied. If the extra color does not really exist, then the consciousness will recreate it. Mixing additional colors gives a grey color and creates a sense of balance. The processes occurring in the head are connected with the whole organism. What we see affects our feelings, our psyche. 

The fundamentals of harmony are part of our physiology.

What is harmony?

Harmony is the orderliness of something, a little balance, a drop of unity, proportionality and wholeness.

But what does this concept mean in the color palette? It's all about balance, which includes lightness, tone, satuation, quantitative color relationships. Combining several parameters, the composition is added to the harmony along with the form. The large number of forming parameters and their variability introduces uncertainty, creates a feeling of uniqueness for the particular subject.

Is it possible without harmony?

In art works, where there are different shades, there is not always the harmony. It can be intentionally violated by artists to create more expressiveness, some special mood.

Very strong influence is exerted by fashion, and it may not always follow the harmony. In addition, the disharmony is also a mechanism of influence on a person. If something produced a negative impression, then it will be well remembered.

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Our brain is still poorly taught , as complex neurological processes are going on inside it, connected with the whole organism by a single whole.

The eyes are one of the tools of perception of the surrounding world. With their help, we can distinguish a huge number of colors and shades, enjoying and admiring the rainbow extravaganza.

The simple about the complex


If to delve into the science of coloristic, disassemble colors by tone and semitone, shades, spectra, it becomes clear that all the wealth of color is difficult to systematize. The Swiss artist Itten proposed to simplify the system with a circle of twelve colors. With this circle, color matching and developing a new color palette has become much easier. The person can easily imagine the twelve color, and the larger number will only complicate understanding and perception. Not everyone can imagine a circle of a hundred flowers.

Three pillars: yellow, blue and red

The circle is based on the red, yellow and blue colors. They form a palette of the first order. Mixing in pairs blue and red, we get purple, yellow and blue give a combination of green, and yellow and red - orange. It turns out the palette of the second order: orange, purple and green. All this can be seen on the color circle of Itten, where in the triangle of the three primary colors, the second order appear the other three colors. This system easily allows, if necessary, to arrange all other color variations between them.

Why is the  Circle?

The circle is good for displaying the principles of harmony and color mixing. Perceiving and analyzing each color, our brain balances it with an additional one. This fact underlies the color harmony, creating a sense of balance. The opposite colors in the Itten circle are complementary, counterbalancing each other, and when mixed give a gray color. the colors in the circle are arranged in the same sequence as the colors in the spectrum of visible radiation. The people have come up with the phrase "Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain", which allows you to quickly remember the colors of the rainbow.

Application


The color circle can be used in any area of our lives: for a combination of clothing, interior design, creating paintings. To use a large number of colors than in the circle of Itten, you can use the application Color Assist. It is convenient to make harmonious palettes with it, choosing shades from a larger color variety.

Deeply interested in the theory of color, Itten wrote a book how to draw colors to harmonize space.
His research and now help designers, artists and ordinary people create masterpieces.
1986

How to choose and how to use

The blush creates a feeling of freshness and youth of the skin. After applying tonal and masking the flaws, the color of our face becomes smooth, almost perfect, but unnatural. Therefore, after toning, so as not to turn into a wax doll, and look natural, I recommend making a small correction (to restore the skin volume, emphasize cheekbones, face oval) and apply blush.

Do not confuse the blush with bronzers and proofreaders. The blush have pink, peach, cherry, plum shades; the bronzer emphasizes your tan; the corrector creates on the face volume; highlighter highlights.      


Application

The blush is applied on the cheeks, gradually layering, so as not to overdo it, gradually adding to the tip of the nose and chin. The way of applying the blush depends on their texture

  • Cream (with a dispenser, in a stick, in a jar) - put with the fingers or with the sponge. They are applied to the foundation before applying the powder.
  • The powder (baked, in balls, crumbly) - apply with the brush. They are already applied to the powder.

Choose on your taste. I like cream or in a stick, they can be easily smeared with fingers.

The color of the blush

Dress Assist

There is the rules of coloristic at the choosing at the color of blush. First, determine your color pattern (temperature, brightness, lightness, the presence of contrasts). Then, according to your color, choose the blush.

If you are at a loss to determine the color, you can use the Dress Assist application, which will pick up a palette and tell you which tones you need more to face: warm or cold.

If you:

  • The light girl with the skin of a cold tone and without contrasts in appearance choose the soft, unsaturated blush of the neutral-beige or pink tone.
  • The dark girl with the swarthy skin choose a more intense cherry or plum shade of blush.
  • For the girl with red hair and light eyes (color contrast, warm appearance)  the blush of warm shades (peach or rusty).

If you are in doubt, choose a shade of blush the same as the color of the lips or the color of the lipstick.

Eugene Malikova, makeup artist
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Live Palettes

The color of the skin

One of the biggest difficulties is to determine your color of the skin, the lightness and temperature. How to do it?

Advice 1. Use bright daylight to analyze the color of the skin. Artificial lighting does not fit. Stand in front of the window, and it's best that you do not get straight rays.
Advice 2. On the skin of the face are often present redness, rashes; under the eyes - dark circles. It is better to navigate the unflattered parts of the body: the line of the chin, the skin on the neck, and the armpits.



How to determine the lightness of the skin?

  • The simplest way is the comparison. To do this, you can use the color scale of von Lushan or the the phototype scale of Fitzpatrick. And you can put another person next to you, or better a few - so immediately it will be clear how light you are or how dark

The Fitzpatrick Scale

  •  You can use automatic color detection, for example, using the mobile application Live palettes, you can hover the camera cursor on your skin and see the determined color, its code.

    Live PalettesLive PalettesLive PalettesLive PalettesLive PalettesLive Palettes

How to determine the temperature of the skin?

The temperature of the skin is determined by hemoglobin (gives the skin a red tint), carotene (responsible for the yellow tint) and melanin (brown tint). The warm skin is one that has a yellowish tone. Olive, pinkish shades are cold skin. Determining the temperature is easiest in the same way by comparing with another person. For example: Arya Stark has the warm undertones of the skin (yellowish undertone). Sansa Stark has the cold skin undertones (pinkish undertone).

Источник

Источник

Lifehacks:

  • You can bring a white sheet of paper to your face - it's easier to distinguish shades
  • "Gold /Silver". What jewelry do you like more? Gold or silver? You can try it on, you can imagine it in your mind. If you are more suited to gold jewelry - you have a warm tone, if silver - cold.
  • The veins serve as an excellent guide! Consider the veins on your arms. The blue speaks about the cold undertone, the green ones - about the heat. By the way, not only the veins, but also the color of the lips, the color of the skin on the hair parting and even the color of the nail. 
If you decide on the skin temperature is very difficult, perhaps you have a neutral undertone (greyish skin, in winter, due to lack of sunlight, many residents of the middle band shade the skin becomes grayish).
Determined with the lightness and temperature of the skin, you will not be mistaken with the choice of the desired shade of tonal remedy. At tonal means of warm shades usually in the name there is "golden", at cold shades - "beige", "natural beige".
More details on how to navigate in the choice of tonal means you will learn from the next article.

Eugene Malikova, makeup artist

1790

The correction of skin imperfections

The principles of coloristics are actively used to correct skin imperfections. For example, to mask dark circles or bruises under the eyes.

The concealer (or proofreader) is the means that we need for this purpose.


How to choose the right color of concealer?

To hide the circles under the eyes best guided by the principle of complementary (opposite on the color circle) colors. The concealer (or proofreader) is the means that we need for this purpose. How to choose the right color?

From the rules of coloring it is known that green is complimentary to red, blue to orange, purple to yellow. That's why , the red pimple is best hidden by a greenish corrector. And to hide the grey-blue bruise, we will use the orange (peach, apricot) corrector, for purple we will take the yellowish. Yes, every bruise, like all of us, is unique and has its own shade. Its color can be light grey, deep blue, violet, reddish.

At first, let's determine your shade of bruise:

Try to see some shades of red or purple (usually, they are more visible and easy to distinguish). If you see, boldly use the yellow proofreader. If the red-violet hues are not noticed or determined with a hue, it is very difficult to orientate to a grey-blue color and choose an apricot-type corrector, it is also a peach, it is also orange.

 The texture of the correctors are wax and silicone. The silicone is recommended for age-related skin. They do not clog their wrinkles. The wax does not dry the skin, but requires subsequent hardening to avoid rolling down. You do not need to apply a foundation over the corrector. You can apply the corrector with your fingers, with a brush, patting your fingers, without rubbing, on the intensity zone of the bruise (where the color is the brightest, usually at the inner corner of the eye).

Do not use a regular skin color corrector (lighter or whiter than your foundation). He will not disguise bruises, but will only give them a light grey shade. The tonal cream will not cope with the masking, because it does not have sufficient density.

If nothing happened?

  • If the circles under the eyes could not be concealed, and you do not notice the corrector applied, then you need the same tone of the corrector, only deeper and more intense.
  • If the circles under the eyes disappeared, but the corrector is visible, you need that corrector's shade, only less intense, lighter.
  • If both circles are visible, and the corrector, you need a different shade.

Eugene Malikova, makeup artist

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