Pink for girls, blue for boys: we heard this phrase many times from parents or school teachers. But, in fact, this is nothing more than a gender myth, a common misconception that many of us still willingly believe. There is no strict gradation between the purely “male” and “female” colors, since each color has many shades, but women and men still have different preferences. It should be noted that the cultural evolution and social standards have a great influence on the preferences of men and women. It is generally accepted that pink is an exclusively feminine color, blue is a male color, but in reality we see almost equal preferences for “basic” gender colors.
The most active color, blue is research, it isalmost equally fond of both sexes. This is why this color is so often used in web design.
One of the most interesting color psychology studies is Joe Hallock's «Colour Assignment». These data may indicate that people clearly have preferences for colors regardless of gender. During the study, men and women of different ages were asked to choose the most preferred color from 8 available. This color was blue. It is almost equally preferred by both gender, so this color is so often used in web design.
Favorite colors for men and women
Studies by the British psychologist Hans Jürgen Eysenck in the early 1940s, are confirmed by Joe Hallock's data - men prefer blue and light blue more often than women do.
The most significant gender difference color is green. It mostly loved by men`s, while women`s give preference to the violet. The two pie charts below represent the favorite colors of each gender.
Least favorite colors
Yellow, orange and brown - men and women almost equally cannot stand these colors. The degree of dislike can significantly depending on the person's age.
In the matter of color shades, men most often prefer bright, catchy tones, while women choose softer, pastel shades.
Such studies can be used for better understanding potential customers, for the design tuning of web projects and products.
Pain is a signal to the body about failures and malfunctions. Yes, each person suffers pain in his own way: someone faints at the sight of dental instruments, and someone treats his teeth even without anesthesia. How to set the level of pain felt by a person? Doctors of various specialties asked this question more than once, because the quality of diagnosis is directly related to the quality of treatment.
When assessing pain, it is not enough to limit oneself to physiological indicators (wounds, bruises, burns) or the patient’s behavioral responses. Their main drawback is the inability to take into account the multidimensionality of pain. It is necessary to have information about its quality characteristics and how pain affects the main aspects of human activity. Therefore, physicians and psychologists develop visual color scales. Most methods for assessing pain are based on the interpretation of the statements of the patients themselves.
The most common are the so-called “visual analogue scales of pain” (“color scale”), suggesting the association of the severity of pain with color. The line can be both horizontal and vertical. The patient is asked to make a mark on this line, corresponding to the intensity of pain he is currently experiencing.
Such tools are designed to conduct rapid tests, therefore, are used during the initial assessment. This helps the doctor to obtain information about the characteristics and level of pain, how pain affects a person's daily life. Scale of pain from 1 to 10 level - an example of one of the most effective techniques allows you to accurately determine the level of pain according to the description that corresponds to specific levels and colors (each is divided into shades depending on frequency of pain).
There are tests, like "Multidimensional verbal-color pain test", which helps to define the nature of pain. Psychogenic (based on psychological reasons), somatogenic pain is caused by physical factors.
How do doctors interpret test results?
To interpret the results of such testing problematic, because each of the colors can be quite a lot of values. Therefore, for more accurate estimates immediately after conducting the test the test the patient is instructed to describe their own color associations with pain. Summarized the results show a fairly accurate picture. The only thing we know, red color is most intense pain that simply cannot be tolerated. Such techniques are the first step in the complex diagnosis, they affect the analgesia efficacy and adequacy of the selected treatment .
Color has a rather strong impact on us: some tones induce melancholy, while others, on the contrary, delight and inspiration, some colors irritate the nervous system, others - soothe. Max Luscher developed a technique in 1947, the essence of which is to create a specific set of colors: from the most annoying at the moment, to the most pleasant. Doctors use the Luscher test to determine the level of pain in patients; psychologists to find out what worries the patient, to determine the source of stress; sociologists - to conduct all kinds of research.
Before testing, a person is offered to abstract from all obsessive thoughts, sufferings, experiences and associations imposed from outside. Then just choose the color of the card, based on your own preferences at the current moment, according to the principle: like, like not as much as the previous one. As a result, a person unconsciously selects colors.
Test colors were chosen experimentally by Luscher from 4500 colors during five years of work in a psychiatric clinic. There are at least ten different Luscher tests, which differ in composition, size and shades of cards.
The full Luscher test:
- 7 color sets tables : grey, 8 color, 4 basic colors, blue, green, red, yellow
- table of 7 forms corresponding to the colors (except black)
- re-layout of the table 8 colors
The most widespread in the world received lightweight, 8 color test, which is folded twice. Every time you need to choose colors, as if for the first time. The first choice reflects the desired state, the second reflects the real one.
When analyzing test results, the choice and order of colors, the relative position of colors, and their combinations are taken into account. According to the results of testing, you can find out what a person really is, and not what he wants to be, to seem around. In essence, the Luscher test is an indicator of a person’s physical and psychological health.
Usually we see accustomed to see doctors in white robe and already subconsciously associate the medical profession with this color. The white clothes of the medical workers explained with the practicality of this color. Any, even the slightest, stains are clearly visible on it, and it is possible to bleach a monochromatic white fabric with the help of usual chlorine. But why then modern surgeons do not wear white coats?
Surgeons wear blue or green robes for a reason. It's all about the device of human vision.
Green - the most restful color for our eyes. It helps to relax and focus on a specific action, while red is a clear irritant. And irritability is simply unacceptable during complex multi-hour operations. Yes, and the crystal white color can momentarily blind the doctor, who for a long time concentrated on dark colors. Therefore, this color is chosen primarily not because of the aesthetic quality, but because of practicality. This can significantly reduce the likelihood of errors during the operation.
We sometimes do not pay attention to some things but it can be a thoroughly thought out things. And even such an insignificant detail as the color of a robe helps to save lives.
Color has symbolic meaning in many in many cultures and religions. Let us consider the meaning of the colors in such religions as: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism.
Christianity. In Christianity, a rather limited color palette is used - mostly black and white. The main color of Christianity is considered to be just white. White is a symbol of purity, and therefore of God. By the way, in ancient times, ministers of the church did not wear black attire, this color was used only for everyday life. During the divine services both Catholic and Orthodox priests were always dressed in white.
Black represents the negative side of life. Used as a symbol of mourning, priests dressed in black robes participate in funerals and funeral processions.
At the beginning of the heyday of Christianity, another color was widely used - yellow. This color symbolized the sun and God as the king of heaven. But since the twelfth century, they began to consider yellow as the color of Judas, that is, the color of lies and betrayal. The reason for such judgments was the yellow vestment of Judas Iscariot.
Red - the color of blood, is considered a symbol of cruelty and sin. This color is also a mandatory feature in the clothing of priests in the days of the commemoration of the sufferings of Jesus.
Islam. The first primary color in Islam is white, a symbol of Holiness and dignity. Unlike Christianity, white color is used in funeral ceremonies, but it is not a color of the tragedy. For years of existence of this religion, the white color acquired the collective meaning of all good, the best qualities.
Yellow is the second primary color. It is the symbol of the brilliant sun, gold, joy.
The third primary color is red. In contrast to the biblical symbolism, red in Islam it is a positive symbol. Yeah, it also represents the blood, but in this case as a symbol of beauty and sincere emotions.
Green is the color of the Muslim Paradise. Green in Islam has a very positive meaning. The sacred banner of Mohammed and the entire Muslim world colored in green. This case reflected in the modern flag and heraldic symbols of the Eastern countries.
Buddhism and Hinduism. The orange color in Buddhism and Hinduism is the color of humility, detachment from material goods and of human vices. In clothes of this color, saints ascetics traditionally weared, and so did Buddha. Today orange is the official color of these two religions, but there are a few dominant colors:
Golden - sun light, which symbolizes life, truth, immortality, wealth, power, faith, Nirvana. In numerous sculptural and painted images of the Buddha appears certainly Golden.
White (the color of the Mother) represents Holiness, purity, purity, mastery of oneself, the salvation.
Red/brown (the color of the father) represents materiality, joy, activity, creativity, life.
Blue is eternity and loyalty.
Yellow is the color of spirituality. The Buddha, as a rule, dressed in yellow garments.
In the tradition of Mahayana (one of the two main directions of Buddhism) – there is a whole system color sequence, which lead to enlightenment (to the Buddha). Black, blue, red, yellow, white, gold. This sequence denotes a path to the state of perfection - Nirvana, the color symbol of which is golden.
Every day we are confronted with a lot of colors and shades. Some names we know from childhood, and the name of the other not even think about. Despite the official classification, the creative people came up with fancy names of colors, which will not meet every day. Here are the most interesting of them.
Bismarck (or Bismark-Furioso) brown with a red tint. Named after Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany. Used for marking the waterline on the hull.
Verdigri. Grey with some greenish colour. Is the color of the thin oxide-carbonate film of natural origin, formed on copper or bronze is exposed to air, water, carbon dioxide, or sulfur. This is the green patina that covers the old copper pipes and the roof, gives the Statue of Liberty characteristic bluish-green color.
Surprise Dauphin. It is the color of childish surprise. That is, speaking in a rude, popular language - this is diarrheic color. It is something between a yellow-brown with a greenish tinge. According to legend, this name comes from the time of Marie Antoinette. The royal woman gave birth to a son, he was publicly emptied, but the woman did not lose her head and called this color of children's surprise “the surprise of the dauphin”.
The color of a frightened mouse – light grey, in people it is called smur. Unfortunately the origin of this name is unknown.
Toad fainted. This color was not invented by royal families, but by the developers of the Yandex search engine. If you enter such a request on foreign resources, you will not get anything, because there is no answer to it. If you describe this color, it is something between a gray-green and a stone.
Unusual colors attract people, so they are often used for color characteristics of cosmetics, clothes, furniture, cars. This kind of marketing, the purpose of which is to entice the consumer into the trap of novelty.
Different colors affect the person in different ways. Some cause calm, others - anxiety or joy. But there are colors that do not cause any feelings, except disgust. Let`s analize this most vile of existing colors and its practical application.
GfK Bluemoon conducted a study to identify the most unpleasant for human perception color. Various surveys were conducted and in each of them there was an undeniable "winner" - shade of "opaque couché", "gray-dark brown". It can be described as the color of excrement and marsh. Not the most pleasant association, is not it? The digital representation is rgb(74, 65, 42), #4a412a
You will be wondering why GfK Bluemoon conducted such a strange study?
The answer is that the Australian government with help of this color is fighting with smoking, and quite successfully. According to another study, the use of this color in the design of packs of cigarettes leads to quite a significant reduction in tobacco sales. For example, "opaque couché" occupies more than half of the total area of the package. Moreover, as of today, this innovation has already been adopted by a number of European countries, including Great Britain.
It is worth mentioning that the idea that all cigarette packs should have one standardized design with the use of a large number of dark brown, color images, emblems appeared in New Zealand in the late 1980-ies. Further, the proposal was discussed more than once, but it has come to be implemented in Australia.
Whether the color of excrement and marsh can really reduce the number of smokers will be shown only by the time..
Red is one of the most exciting color of the visible spectrum. For example, the woman in the red dress (or any clothes of this color) just magically affects the behavior of men around, it seems more accessible and enticing.
You will say that this is because of the expressiveness and brightness of the red dress, which distinguish the girl from the surrounding mass, but it's not just that.
The reason is simple - all because of primitive instincts. At us, descendants of primates, this color is directly connected with sexual desire. The answer lies in the fifth point of the baboon. It is the fact that the skin of the females of many primates during the mating season reddens, and this signal remained in our subconscious till this day. By the way, close to the theme of red and the theme of women's critical days. It is interesting that the ban on sex during menstruation is exclusively a human invention, or rather, a church one. Because for all animals these days are a signal for mating.
Red or White – which men will prefer?
The Discovery channel had quite an unusual experiment. For it was specially hired the actress, who walked in the streets of new York, first in white and then in red dress. The aim of the study was to find out which color of the outfits more attract mens attention. The first dress was white. For 30 minutes, the girl walked down the street, but no one noticed her, she was refused to any requests. The next try, but with a red dress, showed the opposite result.men constantly looked back at the girl and even ridiculous requests like "transfer across the street" or "call a friend" were never rejected.
As it turned out, the red color not only attracts attention, but also awakens not the most modest fantasies. If the girl in red, it does not matter whether it's a linen, a dress or a simple T-shirt, in a man wakes up his ancient ancestor-primate.
By the way, for purity of experiment it would be desirable to repeat a similar experience among peoples, which little affected by civilization.
Since ancient times people are looking for relationships between personality type and any parameters. The relationship of human nature and color has been repeatedly confirmed by scientists, by the way, there is even a whole branch of science – psychology of color.
Favorite color of the person can tell a lot about his character and behavior. It is worth mentioning that the color preferences may eventually change, and thus changing the personality. If you are interested in any person - just find out his favorite color.
White. People who like white color are perfectionists by nature, they are very organized and neat, fundamentally apply to any business. Love to white appreciate the simplicity in everything.
Black. "Mysterious" personality, at least they think so. Love to black may indicate that the person is trying to suppress the positive emotions associated with more vivid colors.
Pink. Connoisseurs of pink is often a soft and very quiet people. They don't get nervous for no reason at all and rather to focus on a specific task, so better able to cope with long-term projects.
Red. Purposeful and even a bit aggressive people, quick-tempered, but quickly calm down. Lovers of red can't sit still so I don't understand how others can live without adventure and adrenaline.
Purple. Are individualists at most. They appreciate freedom of expression, witty, love to make fun of others, but they themselves are very sensitive and touchy. Consciously they strive to stand out against the background of others..
Yellow. Yellow color lovers like sensations, they strongly resist any restrictions. Such people are resilient and have a well developed imagination, but, unfortunately, they do not like to take any responsibility.
Green. Always know what they want and do not need other advice, even from specialist. Calm and restrained in the most critical situations.
Blue. People who love blue, incredibly sensitive. They feel comfortable only in a circle of good friends and loved ones. They are very demanding not only to themselves, but also to the surrounding people, therefore it is sometimes problematic to achieve their respicting.
Important! The color is not a label for life – it represents only the approximate nature and characteristics of human behavior, perhaps some just enjoy the hue without any reference to the type.
The perception of red color has evolved over thousands of years to help us to distinguish edible fruits from their natural contrasting environment.
Yes, the bright red color certainly attracts our attention, but the essence of its impact on our brain, much deeper. On a psychological level, red speaks of danger, excitement, passion, power, aggression and success. These reactions are not only emotional, but also physiological.
The color of impulsivity. Red color more noticeable than others encourages people to quick decisions. This is often used by marketers, staining him with a banner "big sale". Focusing on the red color leads to shortness of breath, increase blood pressure. A person's heart rate increases, therefore, it becomes more susceptible to rash, impulsive actions. This effect has been noted by the owners of the casino - the players play more risky, make more bets.
Red is often used in food manufactures and fast food: KFC, Burger King, McDonalds and many others. It activates salivary glands, which leads to feelings of hunger and at the same time tiring on the eyes, makes us eat faster and more quickly to leave the institution.
The color of passion. Red evokes strong emotions and passion. No wonder there is a district of the "red light". The scientists make the explanation. A recent study published in the journal "Experimental social psychology" found that men often consider the woman in red as more inclined to play the flirting and sexual contact.
The color of danger. At the same time, red is often perceived as a warning of danger. It is associated with a ban, because in fact the fire is red. For ancient man, red was the signal to escape, was a factor of the destruction. For this reason most of the warning signs painted in red.
Yes, red is very noticeable, "alarm" color, but at the same time the visibility of any color depends on contrast with the surrounding background and the context in which it used. This property need to be clearly understood and red color should used in the context of the entire composition so that it awake only proper feelings, and not Vice versa.
Chromophobe or fear of colors is often seen in people with rapid reaction to certain olors. Such people can completely exclude a specific color from his life, avoiding it at all. The fear of each color has also its name, for example, the fear of red is photophobia, and yellow — xanthophobia. Interestingly that colorblind people can suffer chromatophobia too. Life for these people becomes extremely problematic as the contemplation or the presence of a number of various colors and shades causes panic or anxiety.
According to researchers, this fear is related to some subconscious instincts of human. It is known that the most poisonous insects and animals painted in bright colors – red, orange, yellow. Such color as though hints to a predator that extraction is dangerous and it is better to avoid it in every possible way. This is the main explanation for the irritant effect caused by the "flashy" colors of objects.
Any long-forgotten event usually leads to the development of the disease, for example: a small child wandered to the slaughterhouse and now the red color is subconsciously associated with fear, death and disgust. Over time, the child will grow up and forget about the case with the slaughterhouse, and the nervous system's fear of color will grow into a phobia. The subconscious mind deliberately builds guard to protect themselves from the danger associated with a particular color.
Treatment and symptoms
Among the symptoms of chrometophobia: increased pressure, a sense of panic, increased heart rate, nausea, dyspnea, chills - and these are just some of the symptoms. Fortunately, this rather specific phobia in the modern world has already learned to treat quite effectively. When the patient in a conscious age can remember the reason of the scare of his childhood event, then he will understand how unfounded his fear of this or that color. He learn how to gradually control it and can be cured of chromatophobia.
The patients can take drugs in the presence of bright colors if necessary to restrain the panic attack symptoms. However, they are not an independent method of treatment.
Gender significantly affects color preferences. Even from a young age we are beginning to impose information related to gender, trying to build a particular concept. It can be some hobby, games, sports, eating habits, clothes and of course a color.
Parents literally from the cradle start to confirm gender stereotypes about colors, dressing boys in blue clothes, girls in pink. This colour therapy after some time leads to the fact that children integrate these colors in their own perception of concepts "man" and "woman." So we begin to feel the need to match our own gender: boys tend to prefer a darker, "masculine" colors, girls tender, "feminine".
Pretty in pink
Experts LoBue & Deloache, in 2011, analyzed how the age changes perception of pink color. The experiment involved children from seven months to five years.
As it turned out, the girls began to feel a great sympathy to all pink. At the same time, boys pink irritated, they tried to distance themselves more and more from this color. That is, their reverence changed simultaneously with the process of growing up, as they more and more learned about their gender.
Have you noticed how the color of food or dishes from which you eat affect on the perception of taste? The Scientists from the Polytechnic University of Valencia and Oxford University noticed and conducted the number of experiments.
It turned out that the hot chocolate, poured into the red or orange cup is much tastier than exactly the same liquid, but already in the white cup.
57 experimental subjects were offered to try and express their opinion on the taste of hot chocolate during the experiment. They drunk from four cups of different colors: red, orange, white and cream. The testee noted that hot chocolate in the red and orange cups was much more flavorful and tastier than in the others cups.
Also during this experiment it was found out that drinks, poured into the blue dishes, seems colder and thirsty. The cup of yellow color significantly increases the perception of the sour taste of lemon.
The more brighter and saturated the color of the dish, the more yummy it seems to us. However, the nature use this technique for a long time itself. Most ripe fruits and berries painted in the nature with yellow, red and orange colors.
Do not allow the contrast of food with dishes, because this can have the opposite effect. The blue plate with fried meat can simply spoil your appetite. That's why, the most cafes and restaurants use neutral white or black dishes.